Who was Baby Buelow?

In the summer of 1878, Wilhelm Boldewahn fathered a child

The child’s mother was  Wilhelmine Buehlow and she lived in or near Oshkosh Wisconsin. Wilhelmine’s age,  her parents, and where her family came from are not known, but Wilhelmine sued Wilhelm for support and he was charged with bastardy. Bastardy was often a civil, not a criminal matter and used to determine paternity and secure child support for an illegitimate child. In Wisconsin at the time bastardy was treated as a criminal case. 

William was bound over for trial in May 1878 (before the birth of the baby) and jailed in lieu of a $100 bond. He was tried in September 1878, after the child was born.  He pled guilty, refused to provide a surety or bond to pay for the support of the mother and child and he was sentenced to 3 months in jail. After those 3 months he had no further obligation to support the mother or child. He spent a total of 8 months in jail.

No direct mention of  Wilhelmine or the child can be found after these events of 1878.

The Oshkosh Northwestern Mon May 13 1878

“A bastardy case drew a big crowd in Judge Sarau‘s court this morning. William Baldewande was arrested Saturday on a warrant sworn out by Wilhelmine Buelow, who was about to become a mother. William was lodged in jail until this morning, when the examination took place. Wilhelmine offered to settle the matter for $500, and finally reduced her figures to $35, which William still refused to fork over and had the case adjourned for a week.”

The Oshkosh Northwestern Mon May 20 1878

“The bastardy case of William Balderwande came up for final examination before Justin Sarau on Saturday. After hearing the testimony the court held that there was reasonable evidence that the defendant was guilty of the offense charge and held him for trial at the county court. The defendant was committed to jail in default of $100 bail”

The Oshkosh Northwestern Thu Aug 29 1878

The Circuit Court

The September term of the Circuit Court commences next Tuesday. The calendar consists of 63 issues of fact for the jury, 17 issues a fact for the court, six issues of law for the court, and 9 criminal cases. The criminal cases are as follows:…. State vs William Baldewande, bastardy….”

The Oshkosh Northwestern Tue Sep 10 1878

“William Baldewande, charged with bastardy, was next brought in. In the further corner of the courtrooms sat the girl on whose account William had been thus arraigned, with the 6-months-old responsibility in her arms squalling lustily. William’s attorney announced to the court that the prisoner was, and had been willing all along to marry the girl. The girl, Miss Buelow, announced her refusal to marry him unless he would give bonds to live with her and not run away and dessert her. The Court finally gave William until morning to think the matter over, and he was taken back to his chamber of reflection.

The Oshkosh Northwestern Sat Sep 14 1878

“The case of William Baldewande charged with bastardy was disposed of this morning. William was still willing to marry the girl, but the girl refused to marry him unless he could give bonds not to desert her. This William could not do and an order was entered that the defendant pay $50 for expenses and part maintenance of the child, and $1 week for its future sustenance. William was unable to raise the amount and has gone to jail for three months at the end of time he will swear out.”

Page 228

State of Wisconsin


Wm Baldermande Bastardy

Transcript from Justice Saurau’s docket

filed  May 18th 1878, Transcript shows that

Examination here before

Justice Sarau May 18th 1878. Defendant held

to bail in the sum of $100 to appear in Circuit

Court at next general term

This matter came up for final hearing

Sept 14th 1878

The defendant pleaded guilty

And Judgment was passed upon him

See judgment on file in the case

What happened to Wilhelmine and the baby after 1878?

For years, the identity of Wilhelmine and the fate of her and the child have remained a mystery. DNA results point to possible answer. It should be cautioned that much of the historical record and reports are inaccurate and contradictory – however the DNA connection seems to support that the mother was Wilhelmine Buelow, age 27 and the child’s name was Mary Fredericka Buehlow.

Wilhelmine Buelow was born May 22 1851 in Baerwalde, Kreis Neustettin. The village is 10 miles north east of Gruenwalde, Kreis Neustettin where Wilhelm Boldewahn’s family lived.

Image: My Pomerania

She came to the US in 1874 on her own and stayed with Buelow relatives living in or near Oshkosh, Wisconsin. After the birth of the baby she resurfaced in Cripple Creek, Colorado where she married a recently arrived Swiss immigrant Henry Taube. They had son William in 1884 and returned to Oshkosh where William was baptized in the Peace Lutheran church in 1885.

There is no record of Baby Buelow during this period. In fact there will be no record of her for the next 15 years as many records from the 1880s and 1890s have been lost or destroyed.

However, sometime after 1885, Minnie Buelow and her husband Henry Taube moved to Streator, Illinois. There they had a second child – a daughter – called Minnie in 1890. She died at 16 months in September 1891. In 1892 the Taube’s had a second son, Albert.

What follows has been pieced together from newspaper reports in the local newspaper, The Streator Free Press. In 1891, around the time of the death of her daughter, Minnie began experiencing what the newspaper later called a “mental unbalance”. Then she began to suffer more serious health problems.

1893 – The Taube residence, 1008 South Bloomington Ave is listed for sale: “House; seven rooms; closets; price $1200”

1894 – Minnie was reported to suffer from a large tumor growing on her tongue. Her husband Henry Taube decided to take her to Chicago to have it removed, but a local doctor persuaded him to stay and allow him to remove it surgically. She is able to walk home after the surgery

1896 – March 3 – she and her husband go to Chicago to remove a cancer which had caused “throat trouble”

1896 – March 20, Minnie was reported to have been in hospital in Chicago for removal of a cancer. Mr. Henry Taube received a telegram saying she was not doing well and had ‘lost her reason’ and found her in ‘deplorable condition’ and brought her home.

1896 – April 17 – Minnie is judged to be insane and is taken to Kankakee, Illinois insane asylum. Cause of insanity was listed as the result of the cancer operation. In a later newspaper report, she was reported to have jumped into a well prior to her being committed, suffering minor injuries.

1897 – Jan 22 – Minnie walks home from the Kankakee asylum (52 miles, 20+ hour walk) in the middle of winter and declares herself well. Newspaper says she seems to be able to talk rationally and appears sane but will need to go before a board of inquiry.

1897 – February – June
A later newspaper article states that during this period, Minnie makes multiple attempts to kill herself. Her daughter Mary is reportedly present and prevents her mother from succeeding

1897 – June 1- June 16 – A later newspaper article reports that during these 2 weeks Minnie attempts to kill herself by hanging and drinking poison. Her daughter Mary prevents the attempts and the family pastor visits to talk to her mother

1897 – June 17 Minnie kills herself – the newspaper reports her body was found by her “14 year old daughter” Mary

1897 – Minnie Buelow Taube is buried in Riverview Cemetery Streator, LaSalle County, Illinois.

1897 – July 3 1897 – Henry Taube announces in the local newspaper that he plans to place his two sons [Albert age 6 and William age 13] into a Lutheran orphanage in Muscatine, Iowa

1897 – July- newspaper article states that Mary Taube who was “called here due to the death of her mother” had left Streator, Illinois and returned home to Oshkosh. This contradicts earlier newspaper reports that Mary was already in Illinois weeks before her mother’s death and that she is the one who found her mother dead.

1898 Jan – Henry Taube remarries to Mary Bauhofer – 6 months after his wife’s death. She is from Switzerland and recently arrived in the US

1900 – Now in Oshkosh, age 21, Mary Buehlow marries William Riedi, a day laborer at Reliance Flour Mills. She is 8 months pregnant. They settle in Oshkosh and go on to have 9 children. For many years the family name is spelled “Reedy” in town directories.

1903 – May 22 – Henry Taube attacks his second wife Mary Bauhofer and drives her into the street. She refuses to press charges

1905 – Son Albert is still in the Muscatine, Iowa orphanage – he is 13 years old. By this time William is over 18 and out of the orphanage

1922 – William Riedi, Mary Buehlow Taube’s husband dies in Oshkosh, WI. She is 44 years old with 9 children

1965 – Mary Buehlow Riedi dies in Oshkosh, WI at age 87. She is survived by her many children, grandchildren and her “step-brother” Albert in Milwaukee, WI

Go here to read the step by step analysis of the historical record and the possible DNA connections.

(Readable text for these newspaper articles are at the bottom of this page).

The Streator Free Press Fri Jun 18 1897 (originally printed in the Streator Times on June 16, 1897)

The Streator Free Press July 9 1897

The Oshkosh Northwestern 29 Sep 1965


The Streator Free Press Fri Jun 18 1897 (originally printed in the Streator Times on June 16, 1897)

Insane woman suicides 

Mrs Henry Taube hangs herself to a rafter in the cellar of her home

From Wednesday’s daily

Yesterday afternoon, about 4:00, Mrs Minnie Taube, the insane wife of Henry Taube, an employee of the Cathedral Glass Works, was found by her daughter, Mary, hanging by the neck from a rope attached to a rafter in the cellar of their home at 1008 South Bloomington Street. The girl, who is about 14 years of age, ran to the home of several neighbors and gave the alarm, and, in a short time, a number of men employed at Willey’s brickyard, a short distance away, reached the scene, and one of them cut the body down. The woman was probably dead when her daughter discovered her, as the men who arrived at the house a few minutes later stated that they saw no signs of life at that time.

Dr JJ Taylor was called for, and he and Officer Malloy went with the patrol wagon. The doctor pronounced the woman dead and immediately impanelled a jury who held an inquest and returned to verdict to the effect that it was a case of intentional suicide by hanging. The corpse was in brought up out of the cellar and prepared for burial by Henry Howland.

Mrs Taube is supposed to have committed the act between the hours of three and four o’clock yesterday afternoon. About 4:00, the daughter missed her mother from the house, and upon going to the cellar made the horrible discovery above related. The body was in a sitting position and rested partially on a 3 gallon crock which was turned upside down. The woman, it seems, had driven a half dozen nails into the side of one of the rafters which support the floor above. To two of those nails she attached a clothesline doubled; then she mounted the jar and tied the other end of the rope around her neck and again stepped to the ground. The rafters not being not more than 5 ft from the ground, and the woman finding it impossible to suspend herself in the air, she must have, with great determination, held her feet in the air until the rope had strangled her, when her body sank into the position in which it was found.

Two weeks ago the unfortunate woman made an attempt to hang herself in her bedroom, but the nail, to which she had attached one end of the scarf, broke, and her daughter, hearing the noise, came to her assistance and loosened the scarf which had choked her quite severely. The woman, we are informed, had also prepared to suicide at another time by soaking matches and water, with the intention to drinking the liquid .

Of late the daughter has pulled out a number of nails, driven by her mother in different parts of the house, probably with the idea of using them to carry out her plan of self-destruction .

Yesterday morning, Reverend Haskarl, pastor of the German Lutheran Church, the one which Mr Taube and family attended, called at their residence, and while in conversation was Mrs Taube, she said she had attempted to kill herself several times. He advised her not to try it again, but it seems she was determined otherwise .

Mrs Taube was born March 22nd, 1851, in Baerwalden Germany. She came to this country in 1875 and settled with relatives at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, where she remained  until 1882 when she went to Colorado, where she met and married Mr Taube. There were born to them five children, three of whom – Mary, William and Albert, ages about 14, 12 and 5 years respectively – together with the husband, survive the deceased. The family has lived in Streator for about 10 years .

For five or six years Mrs Taube has shown signs of mental unbalance. Last fall she was sent to the asylum at Kankakee, but during the following January she escaped from that institution and walked the entire distance to her home in the city, where she has since remained. The funeral services over the remains of the deceased were held by Reverend Haskarl this afternoon, at the house, after which the internment took place at Riverwood cemetery. 


The Streator Free Press July 9 1897

Ms Mary Taube who was called here several weeks ago but the death of her mother, Mrs Henry Taube, left this morning on the Burlington, for her home at Oshkosh Wisconsin


The Oshkosh Northwestern 29 Sep 1965

Mrs Mary F Riedi

87, of 112 Broad Street, died Tuesday at 4:05 p.m. at Mercy Hospital. She had been ill for years .

The former Mary Below was born in Streator, Illinois, on July 2nd, 1878, and came to Oshkosh when she was a young woman. She was married in June, 1900, to William M Riedi, who preceded her in death on January 11th, 1922

Mrs Riedi was a member of the Lutheran Trinity Lutheran Church .

Surviving are four sons, William, Carl, Lawrence and Harold Riedi, Oshkosh; two daughters, Mrs Henry Babler, Van Dyne, and Mrs Frank Willy, Markesan: one stepbrother, Albert Taube, Milwaukee; 13 grandchildren, 12 12 great-grandchildren, and two great great grandchildren .

Services will be held Thursday at 1:30 p.m. at Trinity Lutheran Church with the Reverend KR going officiating. Burial will be at Riverside cemetery. Friends may call at Conrad Funeral home from 3:00 p.m. today until 10:00 a.m. on Thursday and at the church on Thursday from 11:00 a.m. until the hour of services

To Die, Alone, In The Snow – Greek Deaths In America (6-26-22)

The Ephrata Review, Fri, Jul 13, 1923

In 1911, James Peters, age 35 died in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. He was found unconscious in the snow, next to a rail fence, and was taken to a local hospital. He died on April 1, 1911 of pneumonia, 5 days after being admitted. His death certificate stated he was born in Greece, was married, but little else was known.

He was embalmed, but instead of being buried in the spring when the frozen ground softened, he was abandoned, his body left on a shelf in the local morgue. As the morgue experienced extreme temperature swings over the next 12 years, his body petrified. In 1923, he was finally buried but not until after his body was put on display. Gawkers came to look at “the mummy” (without a name). He was laid to rest in Pottstown Cemetery.

The Morning Call, Sat, Jun 30, 1923
The Morning Call, Sat, Jun 30, 1923

The undertaker stated he had embalmed the body in hopes someone might claim him. Perhaps the long delay was not due to neglect, but so that when the body was claimed, the family would pay for both the embalming and the burial. An unburied body, if there is sufficient storage space to hold out for 12 years, may have represented a potential income stream.

The Daily Standard, Fri, Jun 29 1923 (Ontario, Canada)
The Daily Standard, Fri, Jun 29 1923 (Ontario, Canada)

One year earlier, Jim Peter, a Greek laborer, also married, died of pneumonia on January 11, 1910. His death certificate also offers little information about his background: he was 40 years old, married and his father’s name was Peter Peter. He was buried in Monongahela Cemetery, in Braddock a town 4 hrs away from Pottstown.

Many of the Greek men who came to America in the early 1900s came alone without family. The plan was to work hard, earn money and return home. When they died, they were often forgotten, but few suffered the fate of James Peters: discarded for a decade, left to mummify and then made into a spectacle.

But this may not be the entire story:

The immigrants were men without women and expected to remain in America only long enough to accumulate savings. Bereft of mothers and sisters, they barely nurtured the culture that had come down to them from antiquity through the Christian-Byzantine epoch and into the kieftic era of insurrections against the 400-year rule of the Turks. Yet, so important were the rituals of death that the young men immediately built churches and sent for priests to insure the dead “not go to their graves unsung.”

Wrestling with Death: Greek Immigrant Funeral Customs in Utah, Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 52, Number 1, 1984

IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE CENTURY young immigrants regularly sat in Greek Town coffeehouses to arrange funerals for patriotes killed in falls of coal and ore, explosions, and spills of molten metal. “The gold-ornamented Minotaur [industry] of immigrant life is nourished on fresh Greek youth,” wrote a Greek woman journalist who toured the bursting industrial camps of Utah in those years.  Sometimes a black-robed, tall-hatted priest, bearded and long haired, sat with the men. They did the best they could for each countryman but were able to provide little more than the rites for the dead and, at most, place a wedding crown on his head; for marriage, like baptism, had ties with death.

Wrestling with Death: Greek Immigrant Funeral Customs in Utah, Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 52, Number 1, 1984

Robbin Kamuchey (1957-2018)

Robbin M. Kamuchey, 60, of Johnson Creek, passed away on Tuesday, March 6, 2018 at her home.

The eldest of seven children, Robbin Marie Kamuchey was born on November 13, 1957 in Milwaukee to Everett and Barbara (nee Urtle) Kamuchey. Robbin grew up in the Town of Concord. Although she lived in other states, she came home to Jefferson, Wisconsin to raise her three children.

Robbin had a huge heart and was always willing to help another, be it family, friend or a stranger. Her warm heart extended to her love of dogs, often taking in strays or adopting from the shelter. Robbin loved to travel, often to Greece to visit family and friends.

She is survived by her lifetime companion, Anthony Lenti II; children, Amanda, Andrew and Jacob Lenti of Jefferson; step-son, Anthony Lenti III of Fox Lake; siblings, John (Vicki) Kamuchey of Concord, Paul Kamuchey of Waukesha, Mark (Jeanne) Kamuchey of Helenville, Jaye Kamuchey of Watertown, Mary (Cathy) Kamuchey of Watertown and Mathew Kamuchey of Sullivan as well as many nieces, nephews, great-nieces and great-nephews, aunts, uncles, cousins and friends. She was preceded in death by her parents, Everett and Barbara Kamuchey.

A gathering of family and friends will be held on Friday, March 16, 2018 at Concord United Methodist Church in Concord from 4:00 – 7:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, memorials to the family would be greatly appreciated. Hafemeister Funeral Home and Cremation Service of Watertown is serving the family.

Bill Whipp (1940-2020)

Bill Whipp, Beacon, New York

Bill passed away April 25​th​ of complications of coronavirus. Just 4 weeks ago he was a strong, vital energetic man with a knowing smile, full of life and emotion, sensitive to the injustices of the world.

Bill was born into a large family of 9 children. Being the youngest he experienced the complex dynamic of family life, and with 3 deaf sisters he began to understand life’s injustices at an early age. He was empathetic as a young person. Family influenced his perspective. He loved people. Bill was a gregarious person. His amused joyful smile reflected that.

As a young man, Bill was anxious and enthusiastic for adventures he’d not been able to experience. He was determined to make things happen, sailing the Caribbean, hiking to the opening of the St Lawrence Seaway, traveling to the Bay area, inspiring his attraction to Northern California.

Bill was also determined to put himself through school. Always working full time, with persistence he eventually graduated from the Univ of Wisconsin with degrees in Speech Communications and Physical Education. He taught in Milwaukee area schools for several years including the Milwaukee public School system. Not stimulated by this environment, his long held dream to go to Australia loomed. With friend David and others, he was hired as a teacher for the teacher shortage there and was soon living and working in Sydney, New South Wales, arguably one of the worlds most beautiful cities. This 3 year experience was exceptional, but family loomed. He returned to Milwaukee to care for ageing parents, until their deaths.

Bill was an admirer of English writer Samuel Johnson, and travelled to England for a long walk through the English countryside, pastures and villages, some haunts of Mr Johnson . He loved this exhilarating experience so much that he got a job in a village pub, lived upstairs and had the most memorable time for almost a year. He never forgot or regretted this experience. He wanted to live life.

Bill eventually moved to San Jose, California, where he lived for years. He opened a coffee shop, among several work ventures. Bill experienced chronic back pain and worked around this disability of degenerating disks by rigorous therapeutic workouts. His Physical Education training was helpful in building strength and somewhat controlling pain.

Eventually Bill moved to the New York area to be near family members after a heart event. Bill’s niece, Suzanne introduced him to many members of the local community as Uncle Bill. He is still fondly known by many as Uncle Bill. He and his partner Dave explored and appreciated the cultural features of Manhattan. He loved NY.

Bill was a giving presence, an uncomplicated man, passionate about the injustices of life. His smile made everything good.

Surely, he would thank the dedicated staff at NY Presbyterian Hudson Valley Peekskill Hospital and his longtime “Guardian Angel” Dr. Cynthia Ligenza and Terry Alexander FNP-C

Bill is survived by David Dickinson of 50 + years.

Bill is also survived by sisters Thelma Kamuchey and Evangeline Norton of California. Sister in law Susan Kamuchey of Fla. Brother in Law Stan Smith. Many nieces and nephews: Suzanne Pearse Dow, Chip Pearse, Cassandra Kamuchey, Dr.Tim Smith, Penny Smith, John Kamuchey, Mary Jill Kamuchey, Jaye Elizabeth Kamuchey, Paul Kamuchey, Dean Kamuchey, Christopher Kamuchey, Andrew Kamuchey, Paul Norton, Peter Norton, Janet Suttles, Jennifer Trio, Robert Poehlman, James Poehlman, including their spouses. Rodney W Dow of Garrison NY, and many great nieces and nephews including Alexandra and Willa Dow also of Garrison, NY.

Printed in The Highlands Current.

Guestbook on the Clinton Funeral Home Cold Spring, NY.  https://www.clintonfh.com/obituary/William-Whipp

In the days before his death, Bill wrote a letter of thanks to his doctor and medical team. It was published in The Highlands Current.

We all need to be thankful Cold Spring village has Dr. Cynthia Ligenza. Not only is she caring for all of her regular patients who have COVID-19, she is working 12-hour shifts at the hospital caring for patients who are on ventilators. I know for a fact that patients call her in the middle of the night, never thinking this doctor needs rest to be ready to be out there the next day and the day after that.

Her assistant, Terry Alexander, is out there helping as well. Even though people always think that’s the way Dr. Ligenza and Terry should perform their service for us, it is obvious this is putting a strain on these medical providers.

Bill Whipp, Cold Spring (April 21, 2020)


From his sister Thelma:  My favorite memory was when Bill was 4 years old and Christmas was approaching.  Peter  was 8 and I was 10 and we were voicing what we wanted Santa to bring us. We were laughing and enjoying our hopeful wishes, when brother Pete announced that "there wasn’t any Santa Claus and anyone who believed that there was one was just stupid."

 Bill started to cry but I was able to convince him that Santa was real. As Christmas approached, all of us helped with preparing the house by decorating the tree which was placed in front room’s big bay window, the front porch, all the other windows with our homemade decorations. 

The magic night, Christmas Eve finally arrived and the Kamuchey household was very still and quiet as all were asleep.
When the morning light began to stream through the windows Bill and Peter slipped out from their beds and quietly made their way to the living room. 

They found the beautiful Christmas tree exactly where they had left it but as they looked closer, they saw that under the tree it was bare, absolutely bare, not even one present. 

Peter immediately said to Bill “see I told you there wasn’t any Santa Claus, there isn’t anything here." 

All this commotion woke me up and I too made my way to the living room. There they were the two of them, Peter repeating to Bill about there being no Santa and Bill crying. 

Then a loud noise was heard and a “HO, HO, HO” coming from upstairs and the door was opened and there stood a big, round Santa* in his red suit, whiskers and a large bag slung over his shoulder. Bill stopped crying, Peter’s mouth dropped open and Santa started to put our presents under the tree. 

Sweet Bill’s eyes were shining like diamonds and he said “See I knew there was a Santa Claus”. 

*The "Santa" was our sister Evelyn, who had dressed up as Santa Claus and picked up the presents under the tree to hand them out.  She wanted to give her younger siblings a few more years of magic. 
From his sister-in-law Susan:    My brother Bill has gone the extra mile for Uncle Peter and I for many years. Bill called Peter, sent messages, articles, photos etc. to remember Peter thru his rough health conditions. When Peter went home to the Lord he stepped in to do the same for me. I had great NY visits for the last 4 years. We had wonderful times and I have good memories of him.
From his niece Cassandra:  
I have two favorite memories of uncle Bill. 
      One summer in the 70s mom shipped me off to spend a few weeks with uncle Bill. I'm sure he was thrilled at the concept. We drove from New York to Wisconsin and stopped at various historical sites along the way. At one point uncle Bill needed to do something in downtown Philadelphia so he took me to a movie theater, dropped me off in front of it and said "you like science-fiction, go see that movie ."  And left.
    It was Star Wars, and I and another boy were the only people in the movie theater. But I didn't care, I  was enthralled and thought it was the best thing ever . From then on, whenever we came into another town, I would ask three things: " Can I have a root beer, can I have some onion rings, and can I go see Star Wars again?"
     Later that summer we spent time at David's farmhouse in Wisconsin. The house had no indoor plumbing, and electricity only in one room. One night when it was extremely hot and we are all sleeping upstairs, I kept everyone awake talking and telling jokes and laughing and laughing. I'm sure they were thrilled with that as well. :-)  But I also spent that summer picking black berries,and listening to Celtic music (the Chieftains) and dancing under the Milky Way. 
Do not stand at my grave and weep
I am not there,  I do not sleep. 
I am a thousand winds that blow.  
I am the diamond glints on snow.
I am the sunlight on the ripened grain.
I am the gentle Autumn’s rain.
When you awaken in the morning hush, 
I am the swift uplifting rush Of quiet birds in circled flight. 
I am the soft stars that shine at night. 
Do not stand at my grave and cry. 
I am not there. 
I did not die. 
My Spirit is still alive... 

Leaving Germany

The following is an excerpt from a post written by Cindy and David Johnson and reposted to the “My Pomerania” website.The family in the article – the Priebe family – came from the same area as Wilhelm Boldewahn (Kreis Neustettin).

While Wilhelm Boldewahn did not arrive until 1870 (after the US Civil War), his wife Ernestine Dragorius came with her parents in 1865 during the height of the fighting. Like many Prussians, the Dragorius family entered the US through Canada to avoid the conflict. Since Wilhelm entered later in the 1870s, he was able to land in Baltimore, Maryland. 

Why did they leave?


“….. during the time when the last of the manorial system was being dismantled.  Farmers gained the right to personal freedom, to move freely, to buy land, and to buy themselves out of services.  Property transfers in nearby Grunwald where Karl’s sisters lived, also under the same manor Lord largely took place in the 1830’s. The cost of gaining freedom in Gramenz was ceding to the lord of the manor around 1/3 of the land worked by the farmer.  Giving up this much land was not easy.  Loss of access to woodlands, loss of protection from the manor lord during hard times caused many farmers to object to the liberation.

19th century politics did not make life easy either.  Prussia was modernizing and trying to expand, meaning taxes and wars.  Napoleon defeated Prussia in 1806.  Reparations to France resulted in increased taxes.  Land nearby was ceded to the Duchy of Warsaw, bringing foreign powers near.  A few events that would have impacted the Priebes:

1813-15War of Liberation from France
1814Universal conscription
1816/17Widespread crop failures (the Gramenz area was minimally affected)
1827Expansion of schools
1830Liberation of farmers mostly complete in the Gramenz area. Reformed and Lutheran Churches merged
Poverty and famine through the ’40’s from crop failure and population growth.
1845/46Potato crop failures
1860-66Army enlarged under Wilhelm I.
1864German-Danish war…

For farming families, subdividing property between children became untenable at some point. Most of the Priebe members list farmer or laborer as their occupation on the ship manifest when they immigrated.  In other words, some of the members were full or at least part time farmers while others had to contract their labor because there was not enough land for all.  The prospect of all descendants owning their own farm in America looked very attractive.”

How Did They Leave?


In the early ’60’s an emigration agency began operating in the area.  Emigration to the USA from the area began in earnest.  Grunewalt lost 1/4 of its population to a single town in Wisconsin alone for example.  Emigration was complex, requiring:

  • A birth certificate, which the pastor of the parish would write out.
  • A statement of property.
  • A character reference to prove that they did not try to escape from their crime or debts,or the responsibility for an illegitimate child.
  • The consent of the local caretaker of the poor.
  • A document proving that the country of their destination would accept the emigrant.
  • Young men had to prove that they had complied their military service or were physically unable to do so.
  • They had to prove that they had enough money for the trip to the port, a waiting period there, the passage fare, and the first time in the new country.
  • Then they were warned of the dangers and risks of an emigration.
  • After all this had been compiled, they got a preliminary receipt, which allowed them to make a contract for the passage.
  • Then the planned emigration was made public (newspapers, public posting), to give creditors the possibility to claim their money.
  • Only when all this was done would they get their passport allowing travel to the port.

In 1873, the typical annual income for a family members was 630-650 Marks.  A ship ticket in steerage with food was 144-210 mark for an adult, 108-165 Mark for a child.  One year’s income just for a family of 4.  Transport, food and lodging to the port of Bremen or Hamburg, and from New York to Cleveland were needed on top of this. This was a huge expense.  It probably cost the Priebe family much of their property to purchase their move to the US.

In 1862, Albertina’s uncle August Priebe (30) who had been living in Schofhütte, Uncle Ferdinand (27) and Aunt Louisa (Priebe) Raddetz (27), children Johanna and Emilie;  Aunt Wilhelmina (Priebe) and uncle F.H. Raddatz (Ferdinand’s brother), children Carl, Reinhold, Emilie and Johanna; aunt Emilie (Priebe) and uncle Ernst Baumann and children Johann and Carl sailed from Hamburg on May 3 aboard the sailing ship Gellert owned by Rob. M. Sloman company bound for Quebec.  Albertina’s cousins of Carl and August Raddetz, children of Ferdinand and Louisa, were left with grandmother Louise.   The US was in the middle of the Civil war.  The family would skirt the fighting by entering in Canada.  In fact F.H. Raddatz would remain in Canada.  The rest of the family could join them after a home was established and safety could be confirmed.  From Quebec, Ferdinand, Louisa and their daughter Anna walked across Lake Erie in the winter to make their way to Cleveland.

In 1864, Louise (57) gathered the rest of her family and made the move to join August and Louisa in Cleveland.  Louise traveled with Albertina’s father Karl (34) and mother Mina (28), brother Friedrick (7), Emily (5), uncle John (17), aunt Albertine (15), and cousins August (7) and Carl Raddetz (6).  Albertina was no more than 4 months old.

From Gramenz, the family most likely traveled by horse cart either to Belgard where they could continue by train. It is also possible they went by cart to Köslin to go by ship to Bremen.  There they would wait days or weeks before embarking on the sailing ship Elise and Mathilda at Bremen about April 2 and arriving in Castle Garden in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan New York on Monday, May 23, 1864.

Merry Katherine Poehlman Rymer (1949-2019)

The first grandchild of John and Erna Kamuchey. Merry passed away in July 2019.

Bevsek-Verbick Funeral Home Obituary

Merry was born on July 29, 1949 and passed away on Wednesday, July 3, 2019. Merry was a resident of Wisconsin at the time of passing. Per Merry’s wishes, no services will be held. Retired employee of the New Berlin Police Department. In lieu of flowers, Memorials to the local Women’s Shelter appreciated.

Remembering Evelyn Kamuchey (1929-2019)

KAMUCHEY, Evelyn Irene Born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin Nov. 15, 1929. Born to eternal life Austin,Texas May 10, 2019. Graduated Gallaudet Wash.D.C.. Teacher – Texas School for the Deaf. Active board member establishing LA VISTA Retirement Community Travis County for the Deaf. Donations to Gallaudet University. Austin Statesman, 2019

___________________________________””As the baby of the family,  I became everyone’s little monkey to pick up, hug and squeeze. We had a big wide rail rocking chair and big sister Evelyn use to pick me,  place me in her lap, rock away and sing “La-La-La-La” to me while I felt the vibrations of her body that soon rocked me to sleep in her loving arms. It was pure Bliss!

And while I was still very young at an age when I believed in Santa Claus,  big sister Evelyn dressed completely in a red Santa Claus suit,  white beard and all… shouting Ho-Ho-Ho as she came down the front hall stairs carrying a sack full of goodies to give out to all gathered around the Christmas tree.  My eyes and ears could not believe what I was experiencing… Santa Claus was REAL and he came to see us on Christmas morning.  Big sister Thelma and brother Peter did not lie to me that Christmas!  Santa Claus was for real ! Years later,  when Evelyn was so generous gifting to her family siblings,  I would call her Mrs. Santa Claus. 

And now as I wake each morning and go to my computer to read my email messages,  I will surely miss reading what my big sister Evelyn sent to me the night before.  We emailed each other two or three times every day of the week.  Those beautiful finger nails on her hands that typed so well during her early employment days at the Milwaukee Sentinel newspaper company,  will not be sending messages to me anymore… the lucky stiffs up there have them now to see and enjoy for all eternity.  I’m sure our sister Marie will be quick to pick up on Evelyn’s arrival.  

Maya Angelou once said, “I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel”…. and that certainly is how I feel about my sister Evelyn.

~Love, Brother Bill”


“I remember aunt Evelyn and Anne Wallace  Coming to visit us on Ida Drive in Concord when I was a boy, approximately six years old (@1974). She wanted lemons from our tree and the only good ones at that time were very high up in the tree, so I climbed up the tree but was scratched from the sharp spikes on the branches. I was very upset at aunt Evelyn for asking me to get the lemons. I went up into the other tree, my crabapple tree and sat there for hours being mad about the injuries. I remember my mom enjoying  Evelyn’s company. I remember her and Anne looking fit, playing tennis frequently . She seemed very happy at that time in her life.

~Nephew Tim Smith


Source: Deaf Network, May 16, 2019


Evelyn Kamuchey was long time teacher at TSD, active Board member of Travis County Council for the Deaf and La Vista Retirement Village many years.  She was very active member of Austin Deaf Community and fought for Women’s Rights and Disability Rights.  She passed peacefully on May 10, 2019 to eternal rest.  

Please sign on-line guest book to share with her beloved family your memory of Evelyn.

In https search bar type cookwaldenfuneralhome.com   Top menu bar click FIND Obituaries and Services   In search bar type Kamuchey  Click on her name  Scroll down to “Memories ” 
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RIP EVELYN!  Ashes in Pacific Ocean, her final request.  SAIL ON, EVELYN!  

~Love Sharon Hassell


A couple of stories about Aunt Evelyn in which I’ll hope you’ll see the humor. She wasn’t a sweet woman generally, but I always knew she loved us. Over my life, I’ve felt like I’ve been lucky for the experiences I had with her, some without her knowing it!

When I was 7 years old, Aunt Evelyn came to visit us in CA. I feel Anne must have also been there, as she always was, but she’s absent from this particular memory. Anyway, we didn’t have a guest room at the time, just a twin rollaway bed. Aunt Evelyn staunchly refused to sleep on the rollaway, and insisted that I give up my bedroom to her for her several-night stay. At first I wasn’t happy about it, but then realized…the rollaway would have to go in the living room…where the TV was! So I got to enjoy a bunch of late nights watching horror movies and the Twilight Zone during her visit without mom and dad catching me walking down the hall! 

This is a multi-part memory from one event. Back in 1987 (age 17), I flew to Chicago for Chip and Melinda’s wedding, representing the California Kamucheys. Earlier the day of the wedding, Anne, Aunt Evelyn and I were out doing some errands in their blue van, and sitting in the back, I decided to do a quick coat of clear nail polish before we got to Aunt Violet’s house. Aunt Evelyn immediately yelled STOP, freaking Anne out, who then stopped the van. She turned around and yelled at me ARE YOU TRYING TO KILL ME?! I was stunned, to say the least. She immediately stepped out of the van and started walking toward the house. Anne looked at me like, ‘Come on. You know that stuff stinks.’ She then turned back around and we kept driving to the house, but I could see her smirking. 😉 Aunt Evelyn was pretty pissed, but walked the last couple of blocks to Violet’s house. 

A few hours later, after scolding me again for polluting the van and that the smell would NEVER come out, we arrive at the church, which as I recall, was just down the block from the house. Chip then comes to tell us that the interpreter he hired was delayed, that s/he wouldn’t be there in time for the ceremony to start, and asked if I could interpret the wedding. “Sure,” I say, not realizing that the altar setup was really not great. You see, the congregation sat in pews, leading to a short set of stairs, from which the altar was at least 10 feet beyond the stairs, behind where I was standing.
So the ceremony starts, Chip and Melinda both looked beautiful, and Melinda passes me going to the looooooong altar. I realize almost instantly that I cannot hear the priest to interpret what he’s saying with my back to him. I start to back up so that I could hear him, but Aunt Evelyn realizes this and starts signing at me furiously I CAN’T SEE YOU THERE. COME BACK TO THE FRONT! I tried explaining that I couldn’t hear the priest, but she wasn’t having it. Soooooo, I ended up making up about 90% of what was said (sorry Chip!). I’m sure it made sense to me whatever I said, but I’m also sure that Violet, Evelyn and the other deaf friends in the congregation thought I was a complete idiot.

Anyway, we walked over to the yard where the reception was being held, and it was lovely. A bunch of Kamucheys were together at a round table, and I remember being absolutely stunned to see Evelyn walking around with a bottle of champagne in her hand, pouring drinks for people, laughing and kissing people on the cheek. Uncle Everett and Aunt Barbara were laughing and said Evelyn was always the most fun when she was drinking. At some point Evelyn settled down and started complaining about how long it was taking to serve dessert. When dessert was finally served, I recall it was a white cake, and Evelyn passed out right into her dessert plate! Everett looked like he was ready to explode, and said we should leave her as is! I think Anne was sorely tempted, but ultimately helped her out of the plate and wiped the icing off of her face before taking her into the house to go to bed. It’s my deepest regret that I didn’t have a camera to capture that moment!

Lastly and more recently, I got to enjoy periodic chats with Aunt Evelyn on the VP (videophone), where inevitably our discussions focused on politics. She loved talking about Washington, DC and always wanted to hear what I thought about what Congress, Obama and later Trump were doing and thinking, as if I was some Beltway insider instead of a Virginia suburbanite who happens to work for the Fed. It was really nice getting to talk with her as a fellow adult and not a teenager anymore. I’ll miss that deeply.

~Niece, Penny Smith


Evelyn was my older sister who always found time to make us younger ones laugh and to teach us important facts about science, animals and how to make excellent chocolate fudge. She taught me to never limit myself or to set boundaries on anything I wanted to do. I remember when she took me for my first lesson in golf. We approached the first green and I starting swinging the club like I was a lumberjack chopping down a tree. She laughed so hard the tears were rolling down her cheeks. She then proceeded to show me the correct way to hold the club , the correct way to stand, and the correct way to follow through with my swing. Well after many feeble tries, I was becoming frustrated and threw the club across the green, yelling “I quit”. She walked over and retrieved the club and said to me, “you cannot quit” you are my sister and my sister Thelma does not quit” I looked into her eyes and saw the determination. After more struggling I finally managed to make the club connect with the tiny white ball and guess what, I hit a “hole in one” She was so elated and kept pounding me on my back and telling me how great I was and good enough to be a professional. My sweet Evelyn a true inspiration.

Sister Thelma


May 23, 2019

Evelyn will always be remembered for the enjoyable debates on a vast array of subjects. There are times we would agree and other times totally disagree on topics of discussions. She would be so funny at times in the discussions with her jokes. She will be missed. May her memories be passed on….

Friend, Jerry J. Mikus, Jr.

Doridos Travelogue: 1851 (March 2019)

[Note: This text has been run through an automatic translator. Original text below]

“In our effort, our beloved friends, to give you as much information about our Homeland, our place, Dorida, we publish an administrative report of the Prefect of Doridas, which describes in an exceptional way the then situation, while giving and important information, historical and archaeological interest. This report was published in the magazine “PANDORA ” the 15.3.1854. Enjoy:

Dimosieyomen gladly Christian excerpt in the 1849 year of writing administrative report of Mr. Eparchou Doridos. Greece is a stage of archaeological and surveying research, and if all the local commanders are pefwtismenin the honor of Mr. Kalamida, a great deal of these reports could not be added to the scientific benefit, but not tosuton. The correctness of the conclusions always, as far as the data is concerned. ”
(Magazine “Pandora ” 15-3-1854).

This part of my report requires a study of profound and long-term time, to be properly developed. But the only thing I want to describe is the existence of the country in the provincial antiquity with a small, archaeological remark.

I cannot keep silent that most of the municipalities, the naming is inaccurate, because those who first raised the names, and they took the positions of the ancient municipalities, a bit of the ancient geography, and a bit Parebalon the simerinin of the provinces. Divide with the Archanan. In the case of the naming of the municipalities, only the names we have today, not the things, in a few we have both. I Bring an example of the provincial Dorida.

In the first place the formation of the municipalities Diirethi and the province Dorida in eleven municipalities, Aetitios, Yaia, Korakos, Krokyliou, Ofionia, Altars, Potania, Oinonos, Tolophonos, Olissonos and Oianthi. But in 1836 the first three were continued to one under the name, municipality of Aegiali, the three second, to another under the name of Krokyliou, the Potania and the last three, in fourth, under the name, municipality Tollofonos.

But according to Strabo, the ancient Doric country was tetrapolis, and four cities were born Erineos (O), Vion (The), Pindos (h), Cysinion (The). Here is how it is expressed: “The Locris, the Esperiois of the continuous entrance of Aitoloi, the Epiknimidiois Ainanes, the Othe haves, and the middle Dorians. They are the four-pulp oikisantes, the Fasin is Metropolis of the absent Dorians, Cities d ‘ Last Erineon, Vion, Pindon, Cyinion. Ypekeitai the Erineon. It is an example of namesake river, in the same way to Ceptison, the most of Lilaia from above. They call the Pindon.

Where are the Erineos, the Vion, where the Pindos, the Kyinion? According to the geographical Dictionary of Mr. Skarlatou of Byzantium, Erineos is the today-called Artoina. But, according to the Lexikon of Nicholas Lwrentoy, was a Doric city about the mountain Pindon. Vion, a city near Erineu, on Mount Parassos, the Kylinion, Polis and this on Mount Parnassus and Pindos, the town of Dorida on the Homonymous river in the Doric country.

Let me come already to the pre-1836 and current municipalities of Dorida. Aigition was the Komi of Aetias Parathalassia (Meineke C ‘ 97), and, as such, it was of course that of Nafpaktos, since all of Krissis until Nafpaktos was considered as a country of Ozolon, and Mr. Skarlatos Byzantios was also a Velijan, without Aitias. Today, however, the capital of the municipality of Aegiali is the Loidorikion, the Mediterranean and the Nafpaktos of 12 hours. The Yaia, Komi in the country of Ozolon Lokous, the text of the Amissis, (Steph, and Meineke C ‘ 101).

In the first formation of the municipalities, Malandriinon was thus, perhaps, very well. Korax, a mountain of steep and rocky, separated from the Lokous Ozolas (Strab.) in 1835 and Eschimatisthi the municipality of Korakos from the villages of Granjan, Klima and other texts in the Eastern Ministry of Mount Korakos. The Krokylion, Polis of Aitania, the text between Tikion and Potania (Thoykyth C ‘ 96) and already the without Pentevioi, where I assume the Teichion, as below I want explained. Ofionia, Ophians, the people of Aetonias, inhabited by the term Korakas, and extending up to the Maliakos Gulf, and in 1835 Eschimatisthi the municipality of Ofionia from the villages of Bostinitzas etc. and Mr. Skarlatos Byzantios assumes as Ophionian the without Vlodon. The Altars, Mount Aetias, formed the westernmost part of Iti, the current, Aninos, Mount Stef., and Altars, people of Aetias, continuing with the Ophians, and habitation on Mt. Voria, near the borders of Thessaly. (Meineke C ‘ 96). (Strab)

In 1835 Eschimatisthi Municipality of Altars, the capital of which was Artotina, without mountain, text above the river Lyorma (Phidari) and opposite the Aitolikou Mountain of Voria. Potdania, a lot of forts in the land of Ozolon, in the boundaries of Aetolia. Today is Paleoxarion, text the river Pindos (Mornos), which separates Naupactus and Dimas Apoditias from Potdanian. Oinseon, a small town of Ozolon Lokous, a text parathalassiws on the Corinthian Gulf with Port (Thou. C ‘ 98). In the year 1835 was the mesogeion without Stoulia, where there are no aerose antiquities. Topolon, City of Ozolon Lokun, east (Meineke, Steph.)

Today is the coastal of Virrinitza. In 1835 the villages of Xylogaϊdaras, Velenikou and Marelion were elected in the prefecture of the ancient ruins, but I did not idynithin to find the word this in the geographic dictionaries, by the way that the Koine Olisona Ancient geographs. Oanthi and Oanthia, a city parathalassia of the Ozolon Lokous, on the Kriisiou Bay. According to the 1835, so, without the Otter, of these existing ancient ruins, the Geographical Lexicographers, as the Galaxeidion, in which there are infinite antiquities, so that the names of the municipalities are to be set, and certain positions, where in the old town of the cities, whose names are nowadays stolen by the municipalities, is considered absolutely necessary to form a committee of the three men of historians and archaeologists, and to wind Greece, bearing in hands the Writings of all the ancient geographs, to be compiled by the sygkrisin of the archaic. Then It is only glory that Ellyn wants, that he is unable to at least approach the ancient ancestral cities, and he does not want to be humiliated, if the national ton Legomenon name, Aetius, Tolophonios, Potidaniatis, and Krokylios, as it happens today, called so, is considered according to the ancient geographers, as a resident of another municipality, despite his residence.

After the small this digrevity I already come to describe the antiquity of Dorida.

On the way from Lidorikiou to the Malandinon, I replied to the left of the road in a stream, surrounded by platans, remnants of a circular prochwrisas, and a time of 1 1/2 from Lidorikiou in the street above the surface of the Earth. Foundations of another ancient building depicting a tower, the position of d ‘ where it lies, is called under the spatial “Marbles ” of the ancient marbles, with which it is eskepasmenon.

You have reached the without Malandrion, I have taken unto him, to Mesimbrian, text Lofon series of Cycloopic wall, having, by misfires, and ramparts, and present the present and present splendor, and beauty in the obvious. Ibid, of course, there was a very pale, and perhaps it was the Hyaia “Komi of the country of Ozolon Lokous, the text of the Steph. Byzantium and Meineke. C ‘ 10 “. The Circumference of the wall is quite extensive, and is preserved almost whole, except on the meridian side.

About The edge of the Arctic side is far from a small ereipion of an ancient building, or perhaps a Nefakos.

In Komi, Vytirinijan, the primary of the municipality of Tolofonos, on the meridian of the hill, there are ruins of an ancient fortification, where undoubtedly there was an ancient Komi, it is agnwston that it was proclaimed. If this is the ancient Tollodon, it is empty, although, as it is characterized by Steph. Byzantium “Polis over the country of Ozolon Lokous text easterly ” may be this. However, What I am reluctant to do is that the beach I was in, is not characterized as such by the geographs and historians. Then Byzantios parallels to Tolofona with today’s “Monastery” Koutzion “which there is no present in the periphery of the municipality of Tolofonos, except for a so-called” Koutzourou “, but also lies by far the Vyrinijkas and near the village of Plessa.

It Emathon, that even without Otter, text east of the Vytaninitzis and Apechon a time of two, there is an archaic fortress axiologoteron of the Vytaninitzis, but it did not have time to visit it from the near.

In the opposite of the three zones of the islands there is a position called “Souli Cütlük”. There on High Hill there are, as Emathon, ruins of Majestic fortress. Emathon Prosti, that also on the bigger monster of the above two erimoniswn there are water pits, and ruins of an ancient fortress around the stylion of the glorious port dexiothen.

In Koykoybistan, Apechoysan of the village Makrysi of the same municipality Meehan time to Mesimbrian, on the way to the current ereipion the construction of the Spania, posing as an archaic agricultural household. These walls have two series of elongated stones. The exterior of the building is Polygonon and has to arkton the entrance, the esoteric consists in Prodromon, in three divisions from right, and Meehan spacious by evonymons.

If this building is in the beginning of a settlement, an common ground is dissolved in a great issue, an existing until far pendulum among all, and those of the official archaeologists, in which, the wise Maritos, arrived to emulate the Greek house with the Simerinas Turkish, only because of the fact that the Turks kataktisantes Greece as well as a home of an odomihedron in accordance towards their customs. (Browser. N. Anachronidos p. 413-414 Tom. 2.) But on the present of the building I word extensive in the No 1784 from 28 July to the Prefecture of my reference.

The Ereipion of the building is placed on a leveled land, but eastwards follows a flap worthy, and towards Mesimbrian land of descent, it has the periphery of 50 vasil. Measures, east and Mesimbrian sides are kept very ypsiloteron above the surface of the earth, part of the meridian side collapsed long ago, and the other was etoimorropon on the Epeskefthin.
When I arrived at the no-one of the same municipality, researches on antiquities, Emathon, that towards the east of the village, between the mountains “Georgiou Vouni, Aetovouni and Grivas Strougas ” There are ruins of an ancient tower, from which the Residents of the position “Marbles “, but epeigomenos to go after the law-abiding in the non-Stylian, where many animals from the epizootic are buried, I do not idynithin to visit the ancient ruins.

Touring the hangman of Potania, and Metabainwn to the preserved Moneen “Varnatokan “ had aristerothen the passages of Karoutakia, Palaiomylon, Kleimakia and Kritison Kolpon. Research on Antiquities, Emathon, that in Palaiomylon at the location of “Agios Nikolaos” There is a ereipion of a cycloopic long wall, which is stretched almost to the sounded. In position “Souli “, between the villages Omerefidi, Logou and Kleimies, on the hill there is another ereipion of an ancient fortress, and in a position of the Paleokastro, and only that it has an archaic fortress, there are also ancient ruins. But of all these, I did not idynithin to visit from his neighbour, except on his own in the position of Paleokastro, a text to her left to the one on the road. However, The self-fenomenon ereipion does not represent a large archaic komi, unless it ypirchen the Acropolis, and around the town of Polichni, since it is far from there and in the middle of the road to the one on the one side, and many ancient tombs are trivious. But my guides, that within the periphery of the ancient fortress were found and shrines Marmarinai.

In the position “Saint Nicholas ” Fortress. City of Acropolin Opwsoyn lamps. Because the coastline has a good port by small ships, it may be that the ancient city of “Oineon “, so rather, as it is described by the Thoykydidin “Polis Small of Ozolon Lokron, PARATHALASSIWS on the Corinthian Gulf with Port (Meineke C ‘ 98 ), since all the surrounding of this post, verdant and today from vineyards, are producing a remarkable. The ruins of the place of the ancient fortress of Souli may be the Poltraces forts in the land of Ozolon, lying on the boundaries of Aetolia, because it is adjacent to the “Oeneona” Pauline and this of Ozolon. Then by Strabo, the coastline from Krissis to Nafpaktos, including, for all neighbouring towns and cities, was considered as a country of Ozolon.

From Moneen Varnatovan to the Lycothrion of the municipality of Potania, whence Anachwrisas descend unto the river Pindon, whom you traverse gingerbread on the road Anandi and Skotlián, they were in without a comedy of the municipality of Krokyliou. At the end of the road, Emathon by my horses, that to the right by far, in a position of “Simou Platanos “, there was brysis and close to it ancient ruins, swallowed on the one hand by the road, and wished to visit the ancient ruins, turn to the Brysin, and the ruins of an ancient tower Opwsoyn Majestic.

On the way from the village of Kwpakioy towards the unconquered Palaioktinon, I replied to Leftodon, a bit before I arrived at the last, position in the ypsikoma trees, and Erwtisas Emathon, that it is called “of the Savior “, a Christian temple, honored in In the name of Christ the Savior, I was there to look at the temples, and instead, the fertile remains of an ancient enclosed temple, perhaps of the Redeemer Apollo, with 8-10 Ypsikomoys Oaks, and Emathon, that although Katelythi the Christian church before years, it is officiate As a priest during the feast of the Transfiguration of the Savior on the ruins of the ancient temple, which consist of stones tetragwnoys and elongated, welcome and redetermination a coherent lead.

Anachwrisas from Palaiokytounon, with the addition of Pentevas, were the capital of the municipality of Krokyliou, wdigithin unto another Christian Christianity, text above the village in a position of high and Eskepasmenon also from Ypsikomoys oaks. I have also stated that this was tolerated on the ruins of a Greek temple, many relics of which appear to be present.
Opposite the Templar, and towards the subsoil of a mount Aitolikos, there are relics of ancient city fortification in various series, and I suppose, that it ypirchen the ancient polis Krokylion, because it is described by Thoykydidin III 96 as “Polis of Aitania, the text between Tikion and Potania “. And verily, if you give in the few following of the village Pentevon (Pentagion) phenomena ruins of ancient city the name of Tehou, equidistant from the first 7 about the hour, and the second only two, in the siren and around it to the without Pentevios several ancient tombs are visible.

A bit below the village of Pentevion, the capital of the municipality of Krokyliou, it appears, as a profyn, ruins of ancient city, and I assume, that it was the Poltraces Teichion, because it is described by Thoykydidin. “Polichni of Aetolia ” and adjacent to Krokylion, in the same way, as I have done, between Teitian and Potteania. Anachwrisas of Pentevon, and headed to Artotinan, I have not replied to the ancient world, and aerose unto this Artotinan, learned by chance, that by far this in Meehan position of Gonyclan, in the high hill, there is a marble in the Earth Construction, I rushed to go there. However, I would like to describe my Poreian, to guide all wishing to visit the archaic edifice.

Ekkinisas from Artotinis, I was in the way, and I was in the half hour Apechoysan the chosen one of the Baptist, where slept over. They were forced to leave the one on the outside, and katelthwn to Arctodysin, I reached the river Likorman, Feidarin, today’s Kalumenon, the quiet, but the thromboous rain of his, he was forced to expose to Mesologion, under the name “Evinos “. Read this, Anilthon by the way, opening on the west side of the hill, so that the building is built, and content in the boundaries of the village Sitistas of the municipality of Apoditia of the province of Nafpaktia. Finally I arrived after Meehan time (from the Monastery) to the position, where it is built, you turn to the right and leave the road, which is ten steps.

The first points, the martyrs of the ancient construction, are seven stones, explained by his roof, and scattered in the heart of evil. Fainomenai in favor of the roof of the stone of the roofs, and finally, inewgmenon towards the east of the building on the roof by removing two large stones. From the mouth of the Katilthon, the stones, the dirt and the leaves of trees, accumulated by the shepherd, the winds and the rain.

The area is rectangular in length and width (because the height does not appear), and no side comprising of five stones of almost the size, has ektasin of three royal meters as being married, the roof is vaulted, and has the same analogy with the specific Observation, that: If a row contains four stones, so many more contains the corresponding, if not, five, and also alone, the bond sygkeitai of stones Sterewteroys and Mikroteroys, and forms a type of toxoid film. The sides and the interior of the roof sygkeintai of stones and a wide variety, in passing the enwsin of the stones present themselves in the corner of their angle, and form small sulcus.

Its territory was not able to be, as Kalyptomenon from a pile of stones and soils, to the west-northeast, however, a long-standing stone, depicting an anoflon door, and a thirst, which was divided by the aid of a garden, Also well-developed with a separate roof, but full land, an entrance from another hole, which is to the west part of the roof. The structure in general is elegant and magnificent, but as an underground, no other entrance is possible, or it may not be discovered after Meehan excavation. But she’s Supposed to be in the western part, and she’s certainly communion with the other divide, as a proffer.

The stones, from the sygkeitai of the edifice, are the so-called schistes, and fainomenai in favor of the surface of the land of the stones of the roof apodeiknyoysin, that the whole building is externally steep what and the ground. If the earth is to be excavated, from the outside, they want to appear rough and unfashionable, and save the roofs excellently and well-. Through the 28th of July and 1784 to the Prefecture of my reference, I had to characterize the building this as Manteion. But the ancient Geographers have already studied, I am very conviction, that the hill, where it lies, is the Tomb, and the building is the tomb of Centauri Nessos. Behold, I have no testimony to support my pepoithisin.

The Strabo, describing the Lokrikas of the country, is still historian in book I, chapter IV, para. 7 and 8, so “The ye do not Estperio Lokras Omiros Of memnitai, th expressly ye, but only to do so antidiastellesthai nonetheless those, of the peace. “

“Lokon, the people of the Holy Evian? “” As well as impose beings. Would ensure ‘ aerose ‘ under the other bereaved poets. Polis d ‘ The end of Amfissian te and Naupactus, the Nafpaktos is in the vicinity of Antirrio near, and is not from its shipbuilding there, or the Herakleidon there built the stucco, as the Curator, Lokons Etti erstwhile prepared. Esty the current Aetetas, Philippos prokrinantos “.

“He and Halgis, the Memnitai and the poet in the Aitolikio KATALOGW, under Kalidoros. It is also the Tomb of Taziassos, a hill, in the name of Nestos Mnima and the other Centaurs, from the serpeion, on the root of the hill Proerchomenon the foul and the clots of the water, and Ozolas Kaleisthai the Nation “.

The root of the river Lofou is Lyoras, sourced from the Mount Bauxite, and Evinos later, according to Apollodoron. The fact that the water of this or the foul is pure myth, as Syneithizon the Ancients to mythologize many things. It is in my mind so, a) because on the Hill, in the root of which flows, there was the tomb of Nestos and the other Centaurs, and B) because it was truly and has today Clots, i.e. it is as Dialymenon (Kekommenon) blood, because the Earth , whence it originates, and is passed through, it is Anthrwpai and C) to justify the purported “Ozolai “.

Then, according to the Geographic Dictionaries, the Kalydon or one of the ancient Greek cities in Aittia, on the Evinos River, the d ‘ Evinos River, called erstwhile Lyorus, was later Evinos, and it is called today “Feidiaris “. The Tairoassos Hill was in the Kalidonas country.

All this testimony, as the shape of the building, I am persuaded to characterize it as a tomb of Nestos, the hill, in which lies the Tomb. Through the new this discovery, I feel a great sense of great haran and I wish to be recognized by the wise archaeologists.

Walking after the Artotinis depart from me many passages, I have not replied elsewhere, in the position Beloychion, the Terpón and the beauty of which I described under the sign “Settlements “. Ibid.

On the east of the hill, in High Hills appear a series of square, starting from a bridge, built in an archaic direction, and in the case of the Arton and Mesimbrian, with brilliant Acropolin, at the top of the hill, of which there are now many ruins, but majestic monuments of the glory of our ancestors.

The Long Walls Deiknyoysin, that the city, was Polyhuman, the 4th Acropolis, that it was under and under wealthy men. But Although I katebalon a lot of money to be able to give to her an archaic name, I do not idynithin, because, as I have called, none of the four-quarter cities, Erineou, Voio, Pindos, and Kytinou, can be Hypovolo, in the mind of The Geographical Lexikon of the Lwrentoy, the name, that the Erineos lies about Mt. Pindon, the Vion near the Erineos on Mount Parnassus, and the Pindos, on the Omonymo River, oat Strab image libraryratesmake. th ‘ ch, 3 and 10. “It is a very good one, in the same way, in Kivison, a lot of Lilaia from the outside ” and the Cybinion on Mount Parnassus.

The acropolis of the aforementioned ancient city lies on the bridge of a river, which is commonly called Moron, and Skarlatos Byzantios invoked Pindon. Pindos River, according to Strabo, is the one who, in the very heart of Lilaias, is the one who, in the prefecture of Fokida, lies in the country, and in this case, Mornos stems from the mountain of Oitis, and it is the same for the Cretans in the southern meridian of Nafpaktos. However, it may be in the same river under the same name, divided into two branches, from which you are the one who is the man of the Kivison of Fokidos, and the other to the Kreiseon kolpon.

If this is the case, then it is very likely that the Lexicate of the Lorendi script is incorrect. “Erineos polis Doric on Mt. Pindon “ Instead of “about the river Pindon “ Because the mountain, Pindos (the Night Metzovon) is between Thessaly and Epirus, and is far of the Doric country. Then you may be allowed to characterize the ancient ruins as the archaic Pauline Erineon, so I guess, since, if the Pindos is identified as being on the Iti, according to the aforementioned Lexikon, it is considered as the overlying of the Erineu (overlies Pindos of Erineu, Strab. ) On the wall of one of the Beloychion of existing Mills, I have also meehan an inscription, so they had so, “EYANDRA LEIOU DI…. ” It was certainly an epitaph, but it has been incomplete since then.

Anachwrisas there I was in the riverside, without the Lefkadion, in the Meridian, below it, despite the common road, the pedestrian of a small line of ancient wall, but it does not distinguish, if that place could be elected as a dwelling of many. Because d ‘ Strabo names the four Doric cities of small and Libyan towns, (formerly, they were in the most worthy cities, they were the main and the Libyan). It may ypirchen self-Vion, as it is indeed described by the Geographic Dictionaries, as text near the Erineu, if Erineos is considered to be in Velouhso, in the above mentioned, and as Lefkaditi is two-hour Velouchi, Lies in the western under-term conditions of high “Gkionas ” called, and composed a Kledon of Parnassus.

If the ancient ruins are characterized as the Polis Erineos, and the in the non-Lefkaditi, as the Vion, then comes the city Pindos, the text of the Esperian side of Iti, and th by far the city of Cybinion, which is considered probably today without Avlithari, where there are, as a few, many antiquities, and it is already the capital of the Municipality of Kytiniou in the Province of Parnassidos.

Other of antiquity I have not replied, except in the acronym of the side of the village Lidorikiou, and it is a constituent of superior to a tower, closer to tombs, in which, as Emathon, excavated and valuables ina species were discovered.

The description of the donation of existing antiquities is hereby terminated. If I have not omitted to do so, the lack of it shall be taken into the misery of the inhabitants, non-statement to be chorigiswsin of information.
Mr. Kalamidas.

This was mentioned in his administrative report by the Prefect of Doridas, K. Kalamidas in 1849, a detailed, descriptive and very informative, with, sadly regrettable, references to antiquities scattered and abandoned, in various parts of our Province, the which, unfortunately again, have not received the attention and interest of any responsible person.

We are given by Mr. Kalamidas, elements that match and descriptions of various residents of Lidorikiou and neighboring villages, ancient objects that occasionally found in various places, in their fields, when they cultivated, many such objects found also in the Lidoriotika fields, at the location “Tragoudo”, which is located in the south of our village, towards Skaloula, unfortunately the State indifference covered everything, as covered by most of the antiquities of Kallipolis.

It should be noted here that the text is published just as it is written, without any editorial or orthographic interventions.


Στην προσπάθειά μας , αγαπημένοι μας φίλοι , να σας δώσουμε όσο πιο πολλές πληροφορίες για την Πατρίδα μας , τον τόπο μας , τη Δωρίδα , δημοσιεύουμε  μια διοικητική έκθεση του Έπαρχου της Δωρίδας , που περιγράφει με εξαιρετικό τρόπο την τότε κατάσταση , δίνοντας παράλληλα και σημαντικές πληροφορίες , ιστορικού και αρχαιολογικού ενδιαφέροντος . Η έκθεση αυτή δημοσιεύτηκε στο περιοδικό ” ΠΑΝΔΩΡΑ ” την 15.3.1854 . 
Απολαύστε την : 
” Δημοσιεύομεν ευχαρίστως το επόμενον απόσπασμα της κατά το 1849 έτος γραφείσης διοικητικής εκθέσεως του κ. Επάρχου Δωρίδος . Η Ελλάς άπασα είναι στάδιον περιέργων αρχαιολογικών και τοπογραφικών ερευνών και αν άπαντες οι κατά τόπους διοικηταί εδείκνυον την πεφωτισμένην φιλοτιμίαν του Κ.Καλαμίδα , μεγάλη εκ των εκθέσεων αυτών ηδύνατο να προσγίνη εις την επιστήμην ωφέλεια , ουχί τοσούτον διά την ορθότητα των συμπερασμάτων πάντοτε , όσον διά την των δεδομένων ακρίβειαν “. 
( Περιοδικό ” Πανδώρα ” 15-3-1854 ) .
Το μέρος τούτο της εκθέσεώς μου χρήζει και μελέτης εμβριθούς και χρόνου μακρού , διά ν’ αναπτυχθεί προσηκόντως . Το επ’ εμοί όμως θέλω περιγράψει μόνον τας υπαρχούσας κατά την επαρχίαν αρχαιότητας με μικράς τινάς αρχαιολογικάς παρατηρήσεις . 
Δεν δύναμαι να σιωπήσω ότι των πλείστων δήμων η ονοματοθεσία είναι ανακριβής , διότι εκείνοι , οίτινες πρώτοι έθεσαν τα ονόματα , και ώρισαν τας θέσεις των αρχαίων δήμων , ολίγον εμελέτησαν τας αρχαίας γεωγραφίας , και ολίγον παρέβαλον την σημερινήν των επαρχιών διαίρεσιν με την αρχαίαν . 
Κατά τας υπαρχούσας ονοματοθεσίας των δήμων ημείς έχομεν σήμερον μόνον τα ονόματα , ουχί δε και τα πράγματα , εις ολίγους δ’ έχομεν αμφότερα . Φέρω παράδειγμα την επαρχίαν Δωρίδος . 
Κατά τας αρχάς του σχηματισμού των δήμων διηρέθη και η επαρχία Δωρίδος εις ένδεκα δήμους , Αιγιτίου , Υαίας , Κόρακος , Κροκυλίου , Οφιονίας , Βωμών , Ποτιδανίας , Οινεώνος , Τολοφώνος , Ολισσόνος και Οιάνθης . Αλλά κατά το 1836 συνεχωνεύθησαν οι τρεις πρώτοι εις ένα υπό το όνομα , δήμος Αιγιτίου , οι τρεις δεύτεροι , εις άλλον υπό το όνομα δήμος Κροκυλίου , οι της Ποτιδανίας και οι τρεις τελευταίοι , εις τέταρτον , υπό το όνομα , δήμος Τολοφώνος . 
Αλλά κατά τον Στράβωνα , η αρχαία Δωρική χώρα ήτο τετράπολις , και αι τέσσαρες πόλεις εκαλούντο Ερινεός (ο) , Βοίον (το) , Πίνδος (η) , Κυτίνιον (το) . Ιδού δε πως εκφράζεται : ” Τοις δε Λοκροίς , τοις μεν Εσπερίοις συνεχείς εισίν Αιτωλοί , τοις δ’ Επικνημιδίοις Αινιάνες , οι την Οίτην έχοντες , και μέσοι Δωριείς .Ούτοι μεν ουν εισίν οι την τετράπολιν οικήσαντες , ην φάσιν είναι Μητρόπολιν των απάντων Δωριέων , πόλεις δ’ έσχον Ερινεόν , Βοίον , Πίνδον , Κυτίνιον . Υπέκειται δε Πίνδος τον Ερινέον . Παραρρεί δ’ αυτήν ομώνυμος ποταμός , εμβάλλων εις τον Κηφισσόν , ου πολύ της Λιλαίας άπωθεν . Τινές δε Ακύφαντα λέγουσι την Πίνδον “. 
Που είναι σήμερον ο Ερινέος , που το Βοίον , που η Πίνδος , που το Κυτίνιον ; Κατά το γεωγραφικόν λεξικόν του Κ.Σκαρλάτου Βυζαντίου , ο Ερινέος είναι η σήμερον καλουμένη Αρτοτίνα . Αλλά , κατά το Λεξικόν του Νικολάου Λωρέντου , ήτο πόλις δωρική περί το όρος Πίνδον . Το Βοίον , πόλις πλησίον του Ερινέου , επί του όρους Παρασσού , το Κυτίνιον , πόλις και αύτη επί του όρους Παρνασσού και η Πίνδος , πόλις της Δωρίδος επί του ομωνύμου ποταμού εν τη Δωρική χώρα . 
Ας έλθω ήδη εις τους προ του 1836 και νυν δήμους της Δωρίδος . Το Αιγίτιον ήτο κώμη της Αιτωλίας παραθαλασσία ( Θουκυδ. γ’ 97 ) , και , ως τοιαύτη έκειτο βεβαίως εκείθεν της Ναυπάκτου , καθότι όλον το από Κρίσσης μέχρι Ναυπάκτου παράλιον εθεωρείτο ως χώρα των Οζόλων , διά τούτο και ο Κ.Σκαρλάτος Βυζάντιος εχαρακτήριζεν ως Αιγίτιον την Βελίτζαν , χωρίον της Αιτωλίας . Σήμερον όμως πρωτεύουσα του δήμου Αιγιτίου είναι το Λοιδωρίκιον , κώμη μεσόγειος και ενταύθεν της Ναυπάκτου 12 ώρας . Η Υαία , κώμη επί της χώρας των Οζόλων Λοκρών , κειμένη αρκτικώς της Αμφίσσης , { Στέφ. Βυζ . και Θουκυδ γ’ 101 ) . 
Εις τον πρώτον σχηματισμόν των δήμων το Μαλανδρίνον ωνομάσθη ούτως , ίσως προσφυώς . Ο Κόραξ , όρος απότομον και πετρώδες χωρίζον την Αιτωλίαν από τους Λοκρούς Οζόλας ( Στράβ.) κατά δε το 1835 εσχηματίσθη δήμος Κόρακος από τα χωρία Γρανίτζαν , Κλήμα και άλλα τινά κείμενα εις τας ανατολικάς υπωρείας του όρους Κόρακος . Το Κροκύλιον , πόλις της Αιτωλίας , κειμένη μεταξύ Τειχίου και Ποτιδανίας ( Θουκυθ.γ’ 96 ) και ήδη το χωρίον Πεντευιοί , όπου υποθέτω το Τείχιον , ως κατωτέρω θέλω εξηγηθή . Η Οφιονία , Οφιονείς , λαός της Αιτωλίας , κατοικών περί το όρος Κόρακα , και εκτεινόμενος έως του Μαλιακού κόλπου , κατά δε το 1835 εσχηματίσθη δήμος Οφιονίας από τα χωρία Βοστινίτζας κ.λ.π.ο δε Κ.Σκαρλάτος Βυζάντιος υποθέτει ως Οφιονίαν το χωρίον Βλοχόν . Οι Βωμοί , όρος της Αιτωλίας , σχηματίζον το δυτικόν μέρος της Οίτης , τα νυν , Άνινος , όρος Στεφ., και Βωμιείς , λαός της Αιτωλίας , συνεχόμενος με τους Οφιονείς , και κατοικών επί του όρους Βωμία , πλησίον των συνόρων της Θεσσαλίας . – Θουκυδ.γ’ 96 . Στράβ.- Κατά δε το 1835 εσχηματίσθη δήμος Βωμών , πρωτεύουσα του οποίου ήταν η Αρτοτίνα , χωρίον ορεινόν , κείμενον άνωθεν του ποταμού Λυκόρμα ( Φίδαρι ) και απέναντι του Αιτωλικού όρους Βωμία . Η Ποτιδάνια , πολίχνη οχυρά εν τη χώρα των Οζόλων , κειμένη επί των ορίων της Αιτωλίας . Σήμερον είναι το Παλαιοξάριον , κείμενον εντεύθεν του ποταμού Πίνδου ( Μόρνου ) , όστις χωρίζει την Ναύπακτον και τον δήμον Αποδοτίας από την Ποτιδανίαν . Ο Οινεών , πόλις μικρά των Οζόλων Λοκρών , κειμένης παραθαλασσίως επί του Κορινθιακού κόλπου με λιμένας – Θου.γ’ 98 – Κατά δε το έτος 1835 ήταν το μεσόγειον χωρίον Στύλια , όπου δεν υπάρχουν ουδ΄αρχαιότητες . Η Τολοφών , πόλις επί της χώρας των Οζόλων Λοκρών , κειμένη ανατολικώς -Θουκυδ, Στεφ. Βυζ .- Σήμερον είναι η παράλιος Βυτρινίτζα . Δήμος Ολισόνος ωνομάσθησαν το 1835 τα χωρία Ξυλογαϊδάρας , Βελενίκου και Μαραζιών εκ των κατά την θέσιν ” Σούλη Ζευγάρι ” φαινομένων αρχαίων ερειπίων , αλλά δεν ηδυνήθην να εύρω την λέξιν ταύτην εις τα γεωγραφικά λεξικά , διά να ίδω που έθετον την κώμην Ολισόνα οι αρχαίοι γεωγράφοι . Οιάνθη και Οιάνθεια , πόλις παραθαλασσία των Οζόλων Λοκρών , κειμένη επί του Κρισσαίου κόλπου . Κατά δε το 1835 ωνόμασαν ούτω το χωρίον Βίδαβον εκ των εν αυτώ υπαρχόντων αρχαίων ερειπίων , εν ω κοινώς παραδέχονται οι Γεωγραφικοί Λεξικογράφοι , ως Οιάνθην , το Γαλαξείδιον , όπου υπάρχουν άπειροι αρχαιότητες 
Δια να τεθώσι λοιπόν ακριβώς τα ονόματα των δήμων , και ορισθώσι αι θέσεις , όπου το πάλαι έκειντο αι πόλεις , των οποίων τα ονόματα κλαμβάνουσι σήμερον οι δήμοι , θεωρείται απολύτως αναγκαίον να σχηματισθή επιτροπή τις εκ τριών ανδρών ιστορικών και αρχαιολόγων , και να περιέλθη την Ελλάδα , φέρουσα ανά χείρας τα συγγράμματα όλων των αρχαίων γεωγράφων , διά να συντάξη γεωγραφίαν νέαν κατά σύγκρισιν προς την αρχαίαν . Τότε μόνον θέλει καυχάσθαι ο Έλλην , ότι ηδυνήθη να ανεύρη τουλάχιστον κατά προσέγγισιν τας αρχαίας των προγόνων πόλεις , και δεν θέλει αισχύνεσθαι , αν φέρη το εθνικόν λεγόμενον όνομα , Αιγίτιος , Τολοφώνιος , Ποτιδανιάτης , και Κροκύλιος , ως συμβαίνει σήμερον , ότε καλούμενος ούτω , θεωρείται κατά τους αρχαίους γεωγράφους , ως κάτοικος άλλου δήμου , παρά της διαμονής του . 
Μετά την μικράν ταύτην παρέκβασιν έρχομαι ήδη να περιγράψω τας αρχαιότητας της Δωρίδος . 
Οδεύων από Λιδωρικίου προς το χωρίον Μαλανδρίνον απήντησα προς αριστεράν της οδού εις ένα ρεύμα , κατάφυτον από πλατάνους , λείψανα κυκλωτικού περιτειχίσματος , προχωρήσας δε επί ώραν 1 1/2 από Λιδωρικίου παρετήρησα εν τω μέσω της οδού άνωθεν της επιφανείας της γης θεμέλια άλλης αρχαίας οικοδομής παριστανούσης πύργον , η θέσις δ’ όπου κείται , καλείται υπό των χωρικών ” Μάρμαρα ” ένεκεν των αρχαίων μαρμάρων , με τα οποία είναι εσκεπασμένον . 
Φθάσας εις το χωρίον Μαλανδρίνον παρετήρησα εις τον , προς μεσημβρίαν , κείμενον λόφον σειράν κυκλωπικού τείχους , έχοντος , κατά διαλείψεις , και επάλξεις , και παριστώντος έτι και νυν λαμπρότητα εξαισίαν και κάλλος περιφανές . Αυτόθι βεβαίως υπήρχε κώμη λαμπρά το πάλαι , και ίσως ήτο η Υαία ” κώμη επί της χώρας των Οζόλων Λοκρών , κειμένης αρκτικώς της Αμφίσσης , κατά τον Στέφ. Βυζάντιον και τον Θουκυδ.γ’ 10 “. Ηπεριφέρεια του τείχους είναι αρκετά εκτεταμένη , και σώζεται σχεδόν ολόκληρος , πλην της μεσημβρινής πλευράς . 
Περί το άκρον της αρκτικής πλευράς ου μακράν φαίνεται πέριξ ενός πρίνου μικρού ερείπιον αρχαίας οικοδομής , ήτις ήτο ίσως Ναίσκος τις . 
Εις κώμην Βυτρινίτζαν , πρωτεύουσαν του δήμου Τολοφώνος , φαίνονται κατά το μεσημβρινόν παράλιον επί τινος λόφου ερείπια αρχαίου περιτειχίσματος , όπου αναμφιβόλως υπήρχε και αρχαία κώμη , είναι άγνωστον πως ωνομάζετο . Αν αύτη είναι η αρχαία Τολοφών , είναι άδηλον , μολονότι , ως χαρακτηρίζεται από τον Στέφ. Βυζάντιον ” πόλις επί της χώρας των Οζόλων Λοκρών κειμένη ανατολικώς ” ενδέχεται να είναι αυτή . Ό,τι όμως με κάμνει να διστάζω είναι ότι παραλία ούσα , δεν χαρακτηρίζεται ως τοιαύτη υπό των γεωγράφων και ιστορικών . Έπειτα ο Βυζάντιος παραλληλίζει εις Τολοφώνα με το σήμερον καλούμενον ” Μοναστήρι Κούτζιον ” οποίον δεν υπάρχει σήμερον ουδέν εις την περιφέρειαν του δήμου Τολοφώνος , πλην ενός επονομαζομένου ” Κουτζούρου ” , αλλά και τούτο κείται μακράν της Βυτρινίτζας και πλησίον του χωρίου Πλέσσα . 
Ενταύθα έμαθον , ότι και εις χωρίον Βίδαβην , κείμενον ανατολικώς της Βυτρινίτζης και απέχον ταύτης ωσεί ώρας δύο , υπάρχει αρχαίον φρούριον αξιολογότερον του της Βυτρινίτζης , αλλά δεν είχον καιρόν να το επισκεφθώ εκ του πλησίον . 
Απέναντι των Τριζωνίων καλουμένων νήσων υπάρχει θέσις , καλουμένη ” Σούλη Ζευγάρι ” . Εκεί επί λόφου υψηλού υπάρχουν , ως έμαθον , ερείπια μεγαλοπρεπούς φρουρίου . Έμαθον προσέτι , ότι και επί της μεγαλυτέρας των ανωτέρω δύο ερημονήσων υπάρχουν φρέατα ποσίμου ύδατος , και ερείπια αρχαίου φρουρίου περί το στόμιον του λαμπρού λιμένος δεξιόθεν . 
Εις θέσιν Κουκουβίσταν , απέχουσαν του χωρίου Μάκρυση του αυτού δήμου μίαν ώραν προς μεσημβρίαν , εύρον προς το ρεύμα ερείπιον οικοδομής σπανίας , παριστώσης αρχαίαν αγροτικήν οικίαν . Οι τοίχοι αυτής έχουσι δύο σειράς επιμήκων λίθων εκ σχίστου . Το εξωτερικόν της οικοδομής είναι πολύγωνον και έχει προς άρκτον την είσοδον , το εσωτερικόν  συνίσταται εις πρόδρομον , εις τρεις διαιρέσεις εκ δεξιών , και μίαν ευρύχωρον εξ ευωνύμων .
Αν η οικοδομή αυτή παριστά αρχαίαν οικίαν , όπερ είναι βέβαιον , λύεται δι’ αυτής εν σπουδαίον ζήτημα , υπάρχον μέχρι τούδε εκκρεμές μεταξύ όλων , και αυτών των επισημοτέρων αρχαιολόγων , εις των οποίων , ο σοφός Μαριέτος , έφθασε να εξομοιώση τας Ελληνικάς οικίας με τας σημερινάς Τουρκικάς , λόγω μόνον , ότι οι Τούρκοι κατακτήσαντες την Ελλάδα εύρον και οικίας ωκοδομημένας συμφώνως προς τα έθιμά των . ( Περιήγ.Ν.Αναχάρσιδος σελ.413-414 Τομ .2 . )Αλλά περί της προκειμένης οικοδομής κάμνω λόγον εκτενή εις την υπ’ αριθ 1784 από 28 Ιουλίου προς την Νομαρχίαν αναφοράν μου . 
Το ερείπιον της οικοδομής ταύτης κείται επί ισοπέδου γης , αλλά προς ανατολάς έπεται κρημνός λόγου άξιος , και προς μεσημβρίαν γη κατωφερής , έχει περιφέρειαν ωσεί 50 βασιλ.μέτρων , αι προς ανατολάς και μεσημβρίαν πλευραί διατηρούνται πολύ υψηλότερον υπεράνω της επιφανείας της γης , μέρος της μεσημβρινής πλευράς κατέρρευσε προ πολλού , και το άλλο ήτον ετοιμόρροπον αφ΄ης το επεσκέφθην . 
Όταν  έφθασα εις το χωρίον Μηλαίαν του αυτού δήμου , ερευνών περί αρχαιοτήτων , έμαθον , ότι προς ανατολάς του χωρίου εις την μεταξύ των ορέων ” Γεωργίου Βουνί , Αετοβούνι και Γρηάς Στρούγκας ” φαινομένην κοιλάδα υπάρχουν ερείπια αρχαίου πύργου , εξ ών καλούσιν οι κάτοικοι την θέσιν ” Μάρμαρα “, αλλ’ επειγόμενος να μεταβώ μετά του Νομοϊατρού εις το χωρίον Στύλιαν , όπου έθνησκον πολλά ζώα εκ της επιζωοτίας , δεν ηδυνήθην να επισκεφτώ τα αρχαία ταύτα ερείπια . 
Περιοδεύων τον δήμον Ποτιδανίας , και μεταβαίνων εις την διατηρουμένην Μονήν ” Βαρνάκοβαν “είχον αριστερόθεν τα χωρία Καρουτάκια , Παλαιόμυλον , Κλημάκια και τον Κρισσαίον Κόλπον . Ερευνών δε περί αρχαιοτήτων , έμαθον , ότι εις Παλαιόμυλον κατά την θέσιν ” Άγιος Νικόλαος ” υπάρχει ερείπιον κυκλωπικού μακρού τείχους , εκτεινομένου σχεδόν έως εις την θάλασσαν . Εις θέσιν ” Σουλέ ” , κειμένην μεταξύ των χωρίων Ομερεφίδι , Λόγκου και Κλημακιών , επί τινος λόφου υπάρχει άλλο ερείπιον αρχαίου φρουρίου , και εις θέσιν καλουμένην Παλαιόκαστρον , διά τούτο και μόνον ότι έχει αρχαίον φρούριον , υπάρχουν επίσης αρχαία ερείπια . Αλλ’ εξ όλων αυτών δεν ηδυνήθην να επισκεφθώ εκ του πλησίον , πλην μόνου του κατά την θέσιν Παλαιόκαστρον , κειμένου προς αριστεράν της προς την Μονήν αγούσης οδού . Το αυτόθι όμως φαινόμενον ερείπιον δεν παριστά μεγάλην αρχαίαν κώμην , εκτός αν αυτόθι υπήρχεν η Ακρόπολις , και πέριξ η Πολίχνη , καθόσον μάλιστα ου μακράν εκείθεν και εν τω μέσω της προς την Μονήν οδού εφαίνοντο και πολλοί αρχαίοι τάφοι ευτελείς . Μοι είπον όμως οι οδηγοί μου , ότι εντός της περιφερείας του αρχαίου φρουρίου ευρέθησαν και λάρνακες μαρμάριναι . 
Το κατά την θέσιν ” Άγιος Νικόλαος ” φρούριον παριστά . Ακρόπολιν πόλεως οπωσούν περιφανούς . Επειδή δε το παράλιόν της έχει καλόν λιμένα διά μικρά πλοία , ενδέχεται να έκειτο αυτόθι η αρχαία πόλις ” Οινέων ” , τοσούτω μάλλον , καθόσον περιγράφεται από τον Θουκυδίδην ” πόλις μικρά των Οζόλων Λοκρών , κειμένη παραθαλασσίως επί του Κορινθιακού κόλπου με λιμένας , Θουκυδ.γ’ 98 ” , καθόσον όλα τα πέριξ αυτής της θέσεως χωρία , κατάφυτα και σήμερον από αμπελώνας , παράγουσι οίνον αξιόλογον . Τα ερείπια του κατά την θέσιν Σουλέ αρχαίου φρουρίου ίσως είναι η Πολίχνη οχυρά εν τη χώρα των Οζόλων , κειμένη επί των ορίων της Αιτωλίας , διότι και γειτνιάζει με την χαρακτηρισθείσαν υπ’ εμού ” Οινεώνα ” πόλιν και ταύτην των Οζόλων .Έπειτα κατά Στράβωνα , ολόκληρον το παράλιον από της Κρίσσης μέχρι της Ναυπάκτου , και αυτής συμπεριλαμβανομένης , μεθ’ όλων των γειτνιαζουσών πόλεων και κωμών , εθεωρείτο ως χώρα των Οζόλων . 
Από την μονήν Βαρνάκοβαν μετέβην εις Λυκοχώριον του δήμου Ποτιδανίας , όθεν αναχωρήσας κατέβην εις τον ποταμόν Πίνδον , τον οποίον διαβάς εισήλθον εις οδόν άναντη και σκολιάν , άγουσαν εις χωρίον Κωπάκι του δήμου Κροκυλίου . Περί το τέλος της οδού ευρισκόμενος , έμαθον από τους ιππηλάτας μου , ότι προς δεξιάν ου μακράν , εις θέσιν καλουμένην ” Σίμου Πλάτανος ” , υπήρχε βρύσις και πλησίον αυτής αρχαία ερείπια , καταπεπονημένος αφ’ ενός εκ της σκολιάς οδού , και επιθυμών αφ’ ετέρου να επισκεφθώ τα αρχαία ερείπια , μετέβην εις την βρύσιν , και είδον ερείπια αρχαίου πύργου οπωσούν μεγαλοπρεπούς .
Οδεύων από του χωρίου Κωπακίου προς το χωρίον Παλαιοκάτουνον , απήντησα προς αριστεράν , ολίγον πριν φθάσω εις το τελευταίον , θέσιν εσκεπασμένην από υψίκομα δένδρα , και ερωτήσας έμαθον , ότι ονομάζεται ” του Σωτήρος ” , εκ τινος χριστιανικού ναού , τιμωμένου επ’ ονόματι του Σωτήρος Χριστού , μετέβην εκεί διά να ίδω τους ναούς , και αντί τούτου , εύρον ερείπια αρχαίου περικαλλούς ναού , ίσως του Σωτήρος Απόλλωνος , εσκεπασμένα από 8-10 υψικόμους πρίνους , και έμαθον , ότι αν και κατελύθη προ ετών ο χριστιανικός ναός , ιερουργεί ενιαυσίως ιερεύς κατά την εορτήν της Μεταμορφώσεως του Σωτήρος επί των ερειπίων του αρχαίου ναού , τα οποία συνίστανται εις λίθους τετραγώνους και επιμήκεις , καλώς λελαξευμένους και δεικνύοντας οπάς συνεκτικού μολύβδου . 
Αναχωρήσας από Παλαιοκάτουνον διά το χωρίον Πεντευιούς , πρωτεύουσαν του δήμου Κροκυλίου , ωδηγήθην εις εν άλλο ναίδιον χριστιανικόν , κείμενον άνωθεν του χωρίου εις θέσιν υψηλήν και εσκεπασμένον επίσης από υψικόμους πρίνους . Παρετήρησα δε, ότι και τούτο ανεκαινίσθη επί των ερειπίων Ελληνικού ναού , πολλά λείψανα του οποίου φαίνονται έτι και νυν . 
Απέναντι του Ναϊδίου τούτου και προς τας υπωρείας ενός όρους Αιτωλικού , είδον λείψανα αρχαίου περιτειχίσματος πόλεως εις διαφόρους σειράς , και υποθέτω , ότι αυτόθι υπήρχεν η αρχαία πόλις Κροκύλιον , διότι περιγράφεται από τον Θουκυδίδην γ’ 96 ως ” πόλις της Αιτωλίας , κειμένης μεταξύ Τειχίου και Ποτιδανίας “. Και αληθώς , αν αποδώσωμεν εις τα ολίγον κατωτέρω του χωρίου Πεντευιών (Πενταγιών ) φαινόμενα ερείπια αρχαίας πόλεως το όνομα του Τειχίου , απέχουσα από μεν της πρώτης 7 περίπου ώρας , από δε της δευτέρας δύο μόνον , εις την σειράν και πέριξ της προς το χωρίον Πεντευιούς οδού φαίνονται και διάφοροι αρχαίοι τάφοι . 
Ολίγον κατωτέρω του χωρίου Πεντευιών , πρωτευούσης του δήμου Κροκυλίου , φαίνονται , ως προέφην , ερείπια περιτειχίσματος αρχαίας πόλεως , και υποθέτω , ότι αυτόθι έκειτο η Πολίχνη Τείχιον , διότι περιγράφεται από τον Θουκυδίδην .” Πολίχνη της Αιτωλίας ” και γειτνιάζει με το Κροκύλιον , κειμένην  , ως προσημείωσα , μεταξύ Τειχίου και Ποτιδανίας . 
Αναχωρήσας από Πεντευιούς , και διευθυνόμενος προς την Αρτοτίναν , δεν απήντησα ουδαμού αρχαιότητας , και ουδ’ εις αυτήν την Αρτοτίναν , μαθών δ’ εκ τύχης , ότι μακράν αυτής εις μίαν θέσιν Γονυκλησιά , κειμένην επί λόφου υψηλού , υπάρχει εντός της γης μαρμαρινός τις οικοδομή , έσπευσα να μεταβώ εκεί . Θέλω όμως περιγράψει την πορείαν μου , προς οδηγίαν παντός επιθυμούντος να επισκεφθή το αρχαίον οικοδόμημα . 
Εκκινήσας από Αρτοτίνης , έλαβον την  οδόν , και μετέβην εις την ημίσειαν ώραν απέχουσαν διαλελυμένην μονήν του Προδρόμου , όπου διανυκτέρευσα . Την επιούσαν αφήκαν έωθεν την μονήν , και κατελθών προς αρκτοδύσιν , έφθασα εις τον ποταμόν Λυκόρμαν , Φίδαριν σήμερον καλούμενον , όστις κυλίων τα ήσυχα , αλλά θρομβώδη ρειθρά του , επήγαινε να εκβάλη εις Μεσολόγγιον , υπό το όνομα ” Εύηνος “. διαβάς δε αυτόν , ανήλθον δι’ οδού , ανοιγομένης εις την δυτικήν πλευράν του λόφου , εφ’ ου κείται η οικοδομή ,και περιεχομένης εις τα όρια του χωρίου Σιτίστας του δήμου Αποδοτίας της επαρχίας Ναυπακτίας . Τέλος έφθασα μετά μίαν ώραν ( από της Μονής ) εις την θέσιν , όπου κείται οικοδομή , στραφείς προς δεξιάν και αφήσας την οδόν όπισθέν μου ωσεί δέκα βήματα . 
Τα πρώτα σημεία , τα μαρτυρούντα την ύπαρξιν του αρχαίου οικοδομήματος , είναι επτά λίθοι ετερομήκεις , εξηγμένα από την οροφήν του , και εσπαρμένοι τήδε κακείσε . Αι φαινόμεναι υπέρ την γην εξοχαί λίθων τινών της οροφής , και τέλος στόμιον , ηνεωγμένον προς ανατολάς της οικοδομής επί της οροφής δι’ αφαιρέσεως δύο λίθων μεγάλων . Εκ του στομίου τούτου κατήλθον , πατών είς λίθους , χώματα και φύλλα δένδρων , συσωρευθέντα από τους αφιλοκάλους ποιμένας , τας πνοάς των ανέμων και τας βροχάς . 
Το εμβαδόν είναι τετράγωνον κατά μήκος και πλάτος ( διότι το ύψος δεν φαίνεται ) , πάσα δε πλευρά περιλαμβάνουσα πέντε λίθους ίσου σχεδόν μεγέθους , έχει έκτασιν τριών βασιλικών μέτρων ως έγγιστα , η οροφή είναι θολωτή , και έχει την αυτήν αναλογίαν με την ειδικήν παρατήρησιν , ότι : αν μιά σειρά περιέχει τέσσαρας λίθους , άλλους τόσους περιέχει και η αντιστοιχούσα , αν δε , πέντε , επίσης , μόνος δε ο δεσμός αυτής σύγκειται από λίθους στερεωτέρους και μικροτέρους , και σχηματίζει είδος ταινίας τοξοειδούς . Αι πλευραί και το εσωτερικόν της οροφής σύγκεινται εκ λίθων λελαξευμένων και ευρύθμων , εις πάσαν δε ένωσίν των οι λίθοι παρουσιάζουσι τετμημένας τας γωνίας των , και σχηματίζουσι μικρόν αύλακα . 
Το έδαφός του εστάθη αδύνατον να το ίδω , ως καλυπτόμενον από σωρό πετρών και χωμάτων , προς την δυτικοβόρειον όμως γωνίαν παρετήρησα μακρόν λίθον , παριστώντα ανώφλιον θύρας , και κύψας είδον οπήν , εξ ης διά της βοηθείας κηρού αναμμένου παρετήρησα άλλην διαίρεσιν , επίσης καλώς εξειργασμένην με χωριστήν οροφήν , πλήρη όμως γης , εισρευσάσης εξ άλλης οπής , ηνεωγμένης προς το δυτικόν μέρος της οροφής . Το οικοδόμημα εν γένει είναι κομψόν και θαυμάσιον , αλλ’ ως υπόγειον , δεν παριστά ουδαμόθεν είσοδον , ήτις δεν δύναται ν’ ανευρεθή ειμή μετά μίαν ανασκαφήν . Υποτίθεται όμως αύτη προς το δυτικόν μέρος , και κοινωνεί βεβαίως με την άλλην διαίρεσιν , ως προέφην . 
   Οι λίθοι , εξ ων σύγκειται το οικοδόμημα , είναι οι λεγόμενοι σχίσται , αι φαινόμεναι υπέρ την επιφάνειαν της γης εξοχαί των λίθων της οροφής αποδεικνύουσιν , ότι ολόκληρος η οικοδομή παριστά εξωτερικώς απότομόν τι και άρρυθμον . Αν δε ανασκαφή η γη , έξωθεν μεν θέλουν φαίνεσθαι θόλοι τραχείς και άτεχνοι , έσωθεν δε δώματα άριστα εξειργασμένα και εύρυθμα . Διά της από 28 Ιουλίου και υπ’ αριθ.1784 προς την Νομαρχίαν αναφοράς μου , ετόλμησα να χαρακτηρίσω την οικοδομήν ταύτην ως Μαντείον . Αλλ’ ήδη μελετήσας τους αρχαίους Γεωγράφους , διατείνομαι μετ’ ευλόγου πεποιθήσεως , ότι ο μεν λόφος , όπου κείται , είναι ο Ταφιασσός , η δε οικοδομή είναι το μνήμα του Κενταύρου Νέσσου . Ιδού δε εις ποίας μαρτυρίας στηρίζω την πεποίθησίν μου . 
   Ο Στράβων , περιγράφων τας Λοκρικάς χώρας , εξακολουθεί ιστορών εν βιβλίω θ’ κεφ.Δ’ παρ.7 και 8 , ούτω ” Των γε μην Εσπερίων Λοκρών Όμηρος ου μέμνηται , η ου ρητώς γε , αλλά μόνον τω δοκείν αντιδιαστέλλεσθαι τούτοις εκείνους , περί ων ειρήκαμεν .   
     ” Λοκρών , οι ναίουσι πέρην Ιερής Ευβοίης ; “ 
     ” Ως και ετέρων όντων . Άλλ’ ουδ’ υπό των άλλων τεθρύλληνται ποιητών . Πόλις δ’ έσχον Άμφισσάν τε και Ναύπακτον , ων η Ναύπακτος συμμένει του Αντιρρίου πλησίον , ωνόμασται δε από της ναυπηγίας της εκεί γενομένης , είτε των Ηρακλειδών εκεί ναυπηγησαμένων τον στόλον , ειθ’ ως φησιν Έφορος , Λοκρών έτι πρότερον παρασκευασάντων . Έστι δε νυν Αιτωλών , Φιλίππου προκρίναντος “. 
   ” Αυτού δε και η Χαλκίς , ης μέμνηται και ο ποιητής εν τω Αιτωλικώ καταλόγω , υποκάτω Καλυδώνος . Αυτού δε και ο Ταφιασσός , λόφος , εν ω το του Νέσσου Μνήμα και των άλλων Κενταύρων , ων από της σηπεδόνος φασί το επί τη ρίζη του λόφου προερχόμενον δυσώδες και θρόμβους έχον ύδωρ ρειν , διά δε τούτο και Οζόλας καλείσθαι το έθνος “. 
   Ο υπό τη ρίζη του Λόφου ρέων ποταμός είναι ο Λυκόρμας , πηγάζων από του όρους Βωμίας , και Εύηνος ύστερον επονομασθείς , κατά τον Απολλόδωρον . Το δε ότι το ύδωρ αυτού ήτον δυσώδες είναι καθαρός μύθος , ως συνείθιζον οι αρχαίοι να μυθολογώσι πολλά πράγματα . Το εμυθολόγουν δε κατ’ εμέ ούτω , α) διότι επί του Λόφου , εις τη ρίζαν του οποίου ρέει , υπήρχε το μνήμα του Νέσσου και των άλλων Κενταύρων , και β ) διότι αληθώς είχε και έχει σήμερον έτι Θρόμβους , τουτέστιν είναι ως διαλυμένον ( κεκομμένον ) αίμα , επειδή και η γη , όθεν εκπηγάζει , και αι ακταί δι’ ων διέρχεται , είναι ανθρωπαί  και γ ) διά να δικαιολογήσουν την επίκλησιν ” Οζόλαι ” . 
   Έπειτα , κατά τα Γεωγραφικά Λεξικά , η Καλυδών ήτον μία των αρχαιοτέρων Ελληνικών πόλεων εν τη Αιτωλία , κειμένη επί του Ευήνου ποταμού , ο δ’ Εύηνος ποταμός , καλούμενος πρότερον Λυκόρμας , επωνομάσθη ύστερον Εύηνος , και καλείται σήμερον κοινώς ” Φίδαρις ” . Ο δε Ταφιασσός Λόφος έκειτο εν τη Καλυδωνά χώρα . 
   Όλαι αυταί αι μαρτυρίαι , ως καιν το σχήμα της οικοδομής , με πείθουσι να χαρακτηρίσω αυτήν μεν ως μνήμα του Νέσσου , τον δε λόφον , εν ω κείται τον Ταφιασσόν . Διά την νέαν ταύτην ανακάλυψιν αισθάνομαι μεγίστην χαράν και εύχομαι ν’ αναγνωρισθή επιτυχής και από τους σοφούς Αρχαιολόγους . 
   Περιελθών μετά την απ’ Αρτοτίνης αναχώρησίν μου πολλά χωρία , δεν απήντησα αλλού αρχαιοτήτας , ειμή εις την θέσιν Βελούχιον , το τερπνόν και το κάλλος της οποίας περιέγραψα υπό την επιγραφήν ” Συνοικισμοί ” . 
  Αυτόθι περί την ανατολικήν κλίσιν εντός λόφου υψηλού φαίνονται σειραί τετραγώνου περιτειχίσματος , αρχομένου από μιας γεφύρας , ωκοδομημένης κατ’ έθος αρχαικόν , και ενουμένης προς άρκτον και μεσημβρίαν , με λαμπράν ακρόπολιν , κειμένην επί της κορυφής του λόφου , της οποίας σώζονται έτι και νυν πολλά , ερείπια μεν , αλλά μεγαλοπρεπή μνημεία της δόξης των προγόνων μας . Τα μακρά τείχη δεικνύουσιν , ότι η πόλις , ήτο πολυάνθρωπος , η δ’ ακρόπολις , ότι κατωκείτο και υπό πλουσίων ανδρών . Αλλά μολονότι κατέβαλον πολύν κόπον διά να δυνηθώ να δώσω εις αυτήν αρχαίον τι όνομα , δεν ηδυνήθην , διότι , ως παρετήρησα , καμμιά εκ των απαρτιζουσών την τετράπολιν τεσσάρων πόλεων , Ερινεού , Βοίου , Πίνδου και Κυτινίου δεν δύναται να υποτεθή αυτόθι , κατά το υπ ‘όψιν μου Γεωγραφικόν Λεξικόν του Λωρέντου , λέγοντος , ότι ο μεν Ερινεός κείται περί το όρος Πίνδον , το δε Βοίον πλησίον του Ερινεού επί του όρους Παρνασσού , η δε Πίνδος , επί του ομωνύμου ποταμού , όστις κατά Στραβ.βιβλ.θ’ κεφ , 3 & 10 . ” παραρρεί αυτήν , εμβάλλων εις τον Κηφισσόν , ου πολύ της Λιλαίας άπωθεν ” και το Κυτίνιον επί του όρους Παρνασσού . 
   Η ακρόπολις της ανωτέρω ηρειπωμένης αρχαίας πόλεως κείται επί της γεφύρας ενός ποταμού , το οποίον κοινώς μεν ονομάζουσι Μόρνον , ο δε Σκαρλάτος Βυζάντιος επικαλεί Πίνδον . Ο Πίνδος δε ποταμός , κατά τον Στράβωνα , εμβάλλει εις τον Κηφισσόν , ου πολύ της Λιλαίας άνωθεν , κειμένης εις την Φωκικήν χώραν , εν ω ο Μόρνος πηγάζει μεν από το όρος Οίτην , εμβάλλει δε εις τον Κρισσαίον κόλπον μεσημβρινώς της Ναυπάκτου . Ενδέχεται όμως να είναι εις και ο αυτός ποταμός υπό το ίδιον όνομα , και να διαιρείται εις δύο κλάδους , εξ ων ο εις εμβάλλει εις τον Κηφισσόν της Φωκίδος , και ο έτερος εις τον Κρισσαίον κόλπον . 
   Αν υποτεθή τούτο , τότε είναι πολύ πιθανόν να είναι εσφαλμένη η εν τω Λεξικώ του Λωρέντη γραφή .” Ερινέος πόλις Δωρική περί το όρος Πίνδον ” αντί ” περί τον ποταμόν Πίνδον ” διότι το όρος , Πίνδος ( το νύν Μέτζοβον ) είναι το μεταξύ Θεσσαλίας και Ηπείρου , και απέχει πολύ της Δωρικής χώρας . Τότε ίσως επιτρέπεται εις τινα να χαρακτηρίση τα περί ων πρόκειται αρχαία ερείπια ως την αρχαίαν πόλιν Ερινεόν , τοσούτω μάλλον , καθόσον , αν η Πίνδος προσδιορισθή ως κειμένη επί της Οίτης , κατά το ανωτέρω Λεξικόν , θεωρείται ως υπερκείμενος του Ερινεού ( υπέρκειται δε Πίνδος του Ερινεού , Στραβ. ) 
   Εις τον τοίχον ενός των κατά την θέσιν Βελούχιον υπαρχόντων Μύλων παρετήρησα και μίαν επιγραφήν , έχουσαν ούτω , ” ΕΥΑΝΔΡΑ ΕΙΛΕΙΟΥ ΔΙ….” η επιγραφή αύτη ήτο βεβαίως Επιτάφιος , αλλ’ έμενεν έκτοτε ατελής . 
   Αναχωρήσας εκείθεν μετέβην εις το παραποτάμιον χωρίον Λευκαδίτι , εισελθών μεσημβρινώς , κάτωθεν αυτού παρά την κοινήν οδόν ψαύει ο διαβάτης μικράν τινα σειράν αρχαίου τείχους , αλλά δεν διακρίνει , αν το μέρος εκείνο ηδύνατο να εκλεχθή ως κατοικία πολλών . Επειδή δ’ ο Στράβων ονομάζει τας τέσσαρας Δωρικάς πόλεις μικράς και λυπροχώρους , ( τέως μεν ουν ήσαν εν αξιώματι αι πόλεις , καίπερ μικραί και λυπρόχωροι  ) . Ενδέχεται να υπήρχεν αυτόθι το Βοίον , καθόσον μάλιστα περιγράφεται από τα Γεωγραφικά Λεξικά , ως κείμενον πλησίον του Ερινεού , αν Ερινεός θεωρηθή η εν Βελουχίω ηρειπωμένη πόλις , κατά τα ανωτέρω εκτεθέντα , και καθόσον το Λευκαδίτιαπέχει του Βελουχίου δύο ώρας , κείται εις τας δυτικάς υπωρείας όρους υψηλού ” Γκιόνας ” καλουμένου , και αποτελούντος ένα κλάδον του Παρνασσού . 
   Αν τα εν Βελουχίω ερείπια χαρακτηρισθώσιν ως η πόλις Ερινεός , τα δε κατά το χωρίον Λευκαδίτι , ως το Βοίον , τότε έρχεται κατά σειράν η πόλις Πίνδος , κειμένη περί την εσπερίαν πλευράν της Οίτης , και ου μακράν η πόλις Κυτίνιον , οποίον θεωρείται πιθανώς σήμερον το χωρίον Μαυρολιθάρι , όπου υπάρχουν , ως μοι είπον , πολλαί αρχαιότητες , και όπερ είναι ήδη η πρωτεύουσα του Δήμου Κυτινίου της Επαρχίας Παρνασσίδος . 
   Άλλας αρχαιότητας δεν απήντησα , πλην μόνον εις την αρκτικήν πλευράν του χωρίου Λιδωρικίου , και ταύτας συνισταμένας ανώτερον μεν εις ένα πύργον , εγγύτερον δε εις τάφους , εις τινας των οποίων , ως έμαθον , ανευρέθησαν μετ’ ανασκαφήν και πολύτιμά τινα είδη . 
   Ενταύθα περατούται η περιγραφή των κατά την Δωρίδα υπαρχουσών αρχαιοτήτων . Αν δε παρέλειψα τυχόν και τινας , η έλλειψις αύτη ας αποδοθή εις την αθλιότητα των κατοίκων , μη όντων εις κατάστασιν να μοι χορηγήσωσιν ακριβεστέρας πληροφορίας . 
                                                     Κ . ΚΑΛΑΜΙΔΑΣ . 

   Αυτά ανέφερε στην διοικητική έκθεσή του ο Έπαρχος Δωρίδας  Κ. Καλαμίδας το 1849 , μια έκθεση λεπτομερής , περιγραφικότατη και πολύ κατατοπιστική , με , θλιβερές δυστυχώς , αναφορές σε αρχαιότητες σκόρπιες και εγκαταλειμμένες , σε διάφορα σημεία της Επαρχίας μας , οι οποίες δεν έτυχαν , δυστυχώς και πάλι , της προσοχής και του ενδιαφέροντος κανενός υπευθύνου . 
   Μας δίνει ο Κ.Καλαμίδας , στοιχεία που ταιριάζουν και με περιγραφές , διαφόρων κατοίκων του Λιδορικίου και γειτονικών χωριών ,  αρχαία αντικείμενα που κατά καιρούς εύρισκαν σε διάφορα σημεία , σε χωράφια τους , όταν τα καλλιεργούσαν , πολλά δε τέτοια αντικείμενα εύρισκαν και στα Λιδορικιώτικα χωράφια , στην τοποθεσία Τραγουδάκι (η) , που βρίσκεται στα νότια του χωριού μας , προς Σκαλούλα , δυστυχώς η Κρατική αδιαφορία τα σκέπασε όλα , όπως  σκέπασε και το μεγαλύτερο μέρος των αρχαιοτήτων της  Καλλίπολης .

   Θα πρέπει εδώ να  σημειώσουμε πως το  κείμενο δημοσιεύεται όπως  ακριβώς  είναι  γραμμένο , χωρίς  παρεμβάσεις συντακτικές  ή ορθογραφικές .