Plattdütsch: A Dying Language

My grand-mother Erna Boldewahn spoke German and English. My mother remembers sitting at the kitchen table with her mother and her mother’s cousin, Mary Schoblaski listening to them speak German.

  • The dialect was most likely a variation of Platt Deutsch (Low German)
  • Wikipedia says that the inhabitants of Pommern (Northern Prussia)  spoke the Ostpommersch (East Pomeranian) dialect
  • which is a variation of  East Low German
The language has mostly died out, but is still spoken in Brazil where many Prussians emigrated to in the 1800s.

Listen to someone talking about potatoes in Plattdütsch

Plattdütsch Underwegens: Das Kartoffeljahr

A woman singing a love song in Plattdütsch

Dat du mien Leevsen büst

 

A grandchild videotaped their grandparents talking in Plattdütsch.   If you go to the YouTube page there is an English transcript.

Oma un Opa snacken up Plattdüütsch

The Meaning Of The Boldewahn Name

What’s in a name?  Those odd immigrant names really took a beating in the US. Our German great-grand-father’s name was “Boldewahn” But it was spelled:

Baldewan
Boldwahl
Boldean
Boltewahn

My favorites are:
Oldewahn
Bolderwack 
and Baltimore

To be fair, the name was often spelled in the German church books as Bolduan. The Nagel family think that these spelling variations are due to how  cursive writing was taught in Germany before the 1940s. The script was stylized and ornate and is hard for many of us today to read. It was called the “Sütterlin Schreibschrift”. After WW2 the modern “Latin” script was taught that most of us are familiar with here in the USA.

William Baltimore 1884

Baltimore, 1884 Oshkosh City Directory)

 

William Bolderwack 1920
Bolderwhack (1920 Oshkosh Rural Address Book)
Oldewahn Wedding Anniversary 1930
Oldewahn (1930 Oshkosh, WI newspaper)

 

Boltewsku 1930 Census
Boltewahn or Boltewsku (1930 US Census)

 

Bolduan
Bolduan (German Church Register 1851, Gruenwald, Kreis Neustettin, Pommern)

 

So what is the origin of the name?

In this 1903 book about the origins of German and Jewish names  you can find the family name listed under  the “Bold” entry
 
Gotish (East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths):  balths
Old High German ( 700 to 1050  AD): pald, bald

Middle High German ( 1050 and 1350 AD):   balt or kühn (audacious)

The origin of the Italian word: baldo
 
Variations
 
Baldevin – Old High German variant of Baldewin (“Bald” and “Vin”)
 
Vin means “friend”


Ancient Germanic *-winiz = ‘friend’ 

Old Norse – vinr = ‘friend’
Swedish – vän = ‘friend’
Danish – ven = ‘friend’ 
Old High German – wini = ‘friend’
Old English –  wine = ‘friend’  or wini = ‘friend’ 
Baldewein
Bollwin
Bollwien
Pollwien
Bullwein
 
Baldawan
Bollwahn
Bolduan
Boldewan (17th Century)
 
 
CONCLUSION: Boldewahn means “Bold” “Friend”

PS.

The best way to search for the name is to use “wildcard” symbols 
Ex: B*ld*w**n
 
Will capture:
Boldwan
Baldwahn
Boldiwan
Boldiwahn
Bulduwahn
Boldewahnen
Bullwohn
Bolwann
Bulwann

When Greek Immigrants Were Welcomed

Greek immigrants have faced many hardships in America. From the attacks by the Klu Klux Klan, to the massacres by private militia during mining strikes to mob attacks in Nebraska,  the Greek American has faced racism, hatred and violence.

Greek Immigration – Reception, Racism and The Path To Whiteness (9-3-2017)

But it has not always been so. Here is a random collection of articles written during the brief periods when America welcomed refugees and immigrants, when we aspired to be true to our ideals and beliefs.  May we once day embrace them …and our fellow immigrants…..again.

Arranged in chronological order

Star Tribune, Sun Aug 20, 1916
The Minneapolis Star Jun 22, 1925

 

The Winona Daily News Tue Aug 7, 1951

Greeks In Minneapolis – Part 2 (10/22/2018)

After working on the railroads in the 1910s and 1920s, many Greeks settled in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Below are three newspaper articles written by or about some of the Greeks who settled in Minneapolis. You can download full size copies here

  1. James Demos (Dimitropulos/Nikolakopulos)
  2. Markos Janavaras
  3. Gus Spanos
James Demos 1955

 

Markos Janavaras, 1998

Gus Spanos, 1986

 

Excerpts from the Memoirs of Greek Immigrants – Part 3 – Journey To America (7-27-2018)

Front Cover

In 2011,  John J. Zeazeas wrote a short book about  his “Uncle Jim” who emigrated from Greece to the US in 1903. The book can still be purchased for $1 here.    Excerpts are below, with additional links added based on my ongoing research.

On the last day of January of 1903, Uncle Jim left the steps of the family home with a small parcel of personal belongings and food. From the village, the boys walked to the Port of Patras, nearly a hundred miles to the north. Before the end of the first day, they had traveled beyond everything familiar to them.

They had heavy blankets and slept in the open. On the 8th day of foot travel, they arrived at Patras. At the shipping terminal, other young men were coming together from other villages to await the arrival of a steamer that would take them on the first stage of their journey to France, where they would board another ship to America. They were stacked into a dormitory to await transport for 10 days. During the day, they roamed the waterfront to pass time. By night, they talked with other boys and men from other villages – seeking out any information they could about America.

On February 19th, 1903 they boarded ship for Le Havre, France, arriving on or about March 1 st. A few days before the sailing date to America, they were required to submit to document examination and screening by agents of the steamship company. If they didn’t successfully complete the screening process, they were sent back – nothing any immigrant wanted to experience.

On March 14th Uncle Jim boarded ship for the voyage to New York. The ship landed at an Ellis Island moorage near the Statue of Liberty in New York City on March 23rd, 1903. He was
nearly 19 years of age. Aboard ship, they underwent medical examinations by U. S. Public Health officials. If they didn’t pass, they were not allowed ashore at Ellis Island and could be deported. Thereafter, he went by ferry to the Ellis Island Receiving Center, where he underwent more examinations and questioning. Immigration inspectors looked for inconsistencies in answers. But he knew this, passed the inspections and was issued a Landing Card.

[Read about another Greek immigrant’s journey to America in My Grandfather’s Trip from Agios Petros, Greece to NYC – 1906” by Spyro (2017)]

 

Part 1 – The Village Life

Part 2 – The American Dream

1851 – Legal Tribunals and Medals of Honor (7/27/2018)

The following are translated excerpts from a book published in 1851: “The Gift”  written by Giorgos E. Kapsalis.

“Some 30 years after the Greek War of Independence, the Fokidas and Doridos regions continued to struggle with roving bands of bandits and robbers. In addition, there was growing dissatisfaction from the men who had fought in the 1821 War  and who felt they were not rewarded for their sacrifice  and who often joined in uprisings.

In 1849 and 1850, the Municipalities  in the area had the following populations:

1849                        1850

Aegiou          3,988                       4,018

Tolophon     2,323                       2.290

Krokilio           5,500                      5,470

Potidania     4,096                       4,133

TOTAL           15,907                       15,911

In 1851, the government created local tribunals to litigate cases and solicited names of possible jurors. Below is a partial listing of names submitted by a few  of the villages.  This information was published in Giorgos E. Kapsalis book “The Gift”. The book is remarkable as it offers not only geographical and political information, but also  population counts (see above) along with names and ages of individuals, their occupation and their annual incomes.

To see the complete list of all the villages in the original Greek go here: http://www.lidoriki.com/2010/07/1851.html

 Alternate link: http://polidorikiou.blogspot.com/2009/03/1851.html

The info contained in the book has been transcribed by the Lidoriki Blog.   A translated version of the blog page is here (Note:  since last names  on the Lidoriki Blog website are separated by spaces – ex. K A N I O S – the automatic translators may not translate names and they will appear as blank spots).

All names are listed as: [Family Name/Surname] followed by [First Name].

Ex: Georgiou Giannis = Giannis (first name)  Georgiou (last name)

If a name says “of” they are referring to the father.   Ex: Koutroukis Dimitris of Ioannou  = Dimitris Koutroukis, son of Ioannou Koutroukis.

PLESIA (part of the Tolofon District)

The population of Plesia increased triple-fold almost immediately after the war of Independence and has reached 423 residents (75 families). Before the war the village had 175 residents.

It is located one and a half hours north of Vitrinitsa, and produces wheat, barley, corn and cheese.

The following jury members have been proposed:

  • Georgiou Giannis, municipal councilor, 59 years old, with an income of 2,000 drachmas/year.
  • Karanasios Kostas, a stockman, 58, with a fortune of 6,000 drachmas.
  • Manetas A., a 49-year-old justice of the peace, with an income of 2000 drachmas per year.
  • Manetas P., landowner, 43 years old, with an income of 2,000 drachmas per year.

Also important are:

  • Ioannou Giorgos, landowner, 55 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Kamoutsis Stavros, landowner, 60 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Kanios Panagiotis, landowner. (Independence Fighter).
  • Karamantzalos Kostas, landowner, 51 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Kokmotos Mihos, landowner, 55 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Kotrótsosi  or Kordelási  or Kordalá Andreas, 50 years old landowner. (Independence Fighter).
  • Koutsomichos Christos, landowner, 55 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Bounon Plesias Giannis, landowner, 55 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Chrysanthakis Kostas, 32-year-old landowner.
VRAILA

At the edge of Vela’s closed valley, two hours from the Lidoriki to the south, is Vraila, with lots of grain and corn,  barley and wine.

The population declined after 1821. Before the war, there were 21 families within the Turkish district  of  Kazah Malarin’s”, and the village had  16 families with 80 inhabitants.  After the war there are now only 12 families with 45 inhabitants.

Nominated Vrailites are

  • Kontomíchos  George, a farmer. (Independence Fighter).
  • Malakasis Panagiotis, agro-cultivator. (Independence Fighter).
  • Chimekas Thanasis, agronomist. (Independence Fighter).
  • Tsimekas Giannis, agro-cultivator, 61 years old. (Independence Fighter).
MALANDRINO

Malandrino is two and a half hours south from Lidoriki and is similar to Vraila, which, as we said, produces: corn, wheat, barley, wine, cheese, and wool.

Its population has fallen from the 350 inhabitants that they had before 1821 – most of them Ottomans – and the current number is 236 (54 families).

At the time of the Turkish occupation the village was given the name of the second administrative district of the province, “Kazas Malandrinos.”

In 1843, by royal decree, the village fell under the jurisdiction of the Doridos County Court.

Proposed Malandrinians are:

  • Karagiannopoulos Thanasis, a farmer. (Independence Fighter).
  • Katrapas Zacharias, agro-farmer, 56 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Stamatopoulos Diamantostamatopoulos Thymios, agro-farmer, 50 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Triantafyllou Yannis, farmer, 54 years old (Independence Fighter).
STROUZA

Two hours away from Lidoriki is Strouza, near ruins that seem to belong to Aegitio, from which the village was named. Situated on the Pleseva ridge (Pyrinos  Mountain range), the site contains 35 families – 219 inhabitants – and supports itself by grazing and cultivating barley, corn and vines.

Proposed jurors from Strouza are:

  • Vasilodimitris Nikos, farmer. (Independence Fighter).
  • Gólfis (Nkólfis) Thanassis, agro-farmer, 55 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Gólfis (Nkólfis), agro-farmer, 60 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Bakas Panagiotis, agro-cultivator, 70 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Bolotas Andreas, agro-farmer, 48 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Strouzas Panagiotis, agro-farmer, 53 years old. (Independence Fighter).
SKALOULA

In one hour, from Lidoriki, Skaloula contains 26 families and 134 souls, while before the war it was only 5  families with 25 inhabitants.

The village is poor, and produces wheat, barley, corn and wine.

Important Skaliótes  are:

  • Yiannakopoulos Giorgos, 50 years old farmer. (Independence Fighter).
  • Giannakopoulos Nikos, agronomist, aged 55, (Independence Fighter).
  • Stamatopoulos Theoharis, agronomist, 51 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Tzathas Stavros, agro-farmer, 71 years old. (Independence Fighter).
OTHER VILLAGES IN  THE MUNICIPALITY OF TOLFOFOS

The Municipality of Tolofonos stretches from the beaches in Galaxidi to Nafpaktos.  During the Turkish regime the district of  “Kazas Malandrino” had the same geographic boundaries as the Municipality of Tolofonos.

VITRINITSA

The capital of the Municipality, Vitrinitsa – near the ancient Tolofon – is located four hours south of the village of Lidoriki. It is a large village, with a Second Class Primary School and a customs station on its beach – Chania (Fokidos) and  has 531 inhabitants (125 families). Before the 1821 Revolution it had 300 inhabitants.

The policeman are Lampros Giannakos,  Papadimitaris Kolantzis, 65-years-old, and Papaspyros Schoinas, 60 years old.

The following jury members have been proposed:

  • Georgiou Kontogiorgopoulos Vitrinitsa Drosos, a landowner, 61, with an income of 2,500 drachmas per year. (Independence Fighter).
  • Gikas Giorgos, landowner, 41 years old, with a fortune of 6,000 drachmas.
  • Dragos Thanasis, landowner, 59 years old, with an income of 1,500 drachmas per year.
  • Dragos Giannis, landlord, 50 years old, with a fortune of 6,000 drachmas.
  • Karabelas Giorgos, a 48-year-old landowner, with an income of 1,000 drachmas per year.
  • Katsoulis Giannis, 47-year-old landowner, with an income of 2,500 drachmas per year (Independence Fighter).
  • Kontos Loucas, a merchant, 59, with an income of 2,500 drachmas per year.
  • Polítis Andreas of Drosos, a 48-year-old landowner, with a fortune of 6,000 drachmas,
  • Chloros Andreas, a 51-year-old landowner, with an income of 1,000 drachmas per year.

Significant Vitrinians are:

  • Vorgias Kostas, 33-year-old landowner.
  • Georgakopoulos Giannis, landowner, 31 years old.
  • Katsikapis Thodoros of A. Landowner, 20 years old.
  • Katsikapis Giannis, landowner, 51 years old.
  • Kolantzis Drosos, landowner, 51 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Kontolatis Anagnóstis, landowner, 55 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Kontopoulos Charalambis of the Landowner, 20 years old.
  • Papadimitriou Karnavos G. merchant, 36 years old.
  • Politis Giorgos of P., landowner, 40 years old.
  • Stamatopoulos Giorgos,
  • Stamatopoulos D. Landowner, 45 years old.
  • Stavros Stathis, merchant, 47 years old.
  • Stavros Thodoros, merchant, 33 years old.
  • Chloros Giorgos, landowner, 47 years old.
  • Chloros Thomas, landowner, 21 years old.
Xylogydara

An hour and a half northwest of Vitrinitsa, situated up high, overlooking four coastal ports, is the Xylogydara, with 55 families and 254 inhabitants (Before the war, it was 150 inhabitants). Sheep and goats are grazed on the surrounding ridges, and corn, wheat, wine and olive oil are produced.

Candidate jury members:

  • Grilanos Anagnóstis , 55-year old assistant/deputy judge, with an income of 1,500 drachmas a year (Independence Fighter).
  • Darais Giannakopoulos Dimitris of Ioannou, a 49-year-old landowner, with an income of 1,500 drachmas per year. (Independence Fighter).
  • Zoytos Karampinis Dimitris, a 60-year-old landowner, with an income of 2,500 drachmas per year. (Independence Fighter).
  • Katharakis Giannis, landowner, 69, with an income of 2,500 drachmas per year (Independence Fighter).
  • Koutrofoukis Giannakis, municipal councilor – landowner, 63 years old, with an income of 2,500 drachmas per year. (Famous Independence Fighter).
  • Konstantinis Konstantinos Ilias, 40-year-old landowner, with an income of 1,500 drachmas per year.

Also known are:

  • Vavatsikos Thanasis, (Independence Fighter).
  • Koutouzas or Koutatzis Anagnóstis, landowner, 51 years old. (Independence Fighter)
  • Koutroukis Dimitris of Ioannou, 30 years old merchant.
  • Koutrofoukis Panagiotis of Ioannou, 22 years old.
VELENIKOS

Velenikos is located close to Xylogydara, two hours northwest of Vitrinitsa

The town touches the Corinthian Gulf with two ports. The fruitful soil gives  corn, wine and oil, enough to provide for its 132 souls – 28 families. Prior to 1821, the town belonged to the Turkish sector  ‘Kazasa Lidokorikou’ and had 75 inhabitants.

The following jury members have been proposed:

  • Stamagiannis Giannis of A., municipal councilor, 50 years old, with an income of 1,500 drachmas per year. (Independence Fighter).
  • Dimitris Tsamis, landowner, 69, with an income of 1,500 drachmas per year.

Also worthy of consideration:

  • Georgakopoulos Andreas, landlord, 50 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Koutsoumbakis or Koutsoubanis Giorgos, landowner, 50 years old.
  • (Independence Fighter).
  • Konstantinos Mahairas Dimitris of Konstantinos, (Independence Fighter).
  • Sideropoulos Thanasis, landowner, 30 years old.
  • Stamatogianni Giorgos, landowner, 58 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Stamatogianni Thymios of A., landowner, 39 years old.

 MARAZIA

Marazia is located two and a half hours northwest  of Vitrinitsa, producing the same as the surrounding villages: wheat, corn, wine, oil.

Today their inhabitants reach 232 – 45 families – while pre-war there were 135 inhabitants, of which 35 were within Marazia.

Candidates are:

  • Mítis  A. Officer, 64, with an income of 1,500 drachmas per year.
  • Papatheoharis Anagnóstis, landowner, 59 years old, with an income of 2,000 drachmas. the year.

The following are also distinguished:

  • Kathis Antonis, landowner (Independence Fighter).
  • Kapsokolos Nikos, landowner, 48 years old. (Independence Fighter).
 TROIZONIA

Surrounded by the sea is Troizonia, an island with houses and a cemetery where you can find many 1821 Independence Fighters buried who died during the ferocious battles in the area.

Here, at the end of the last century (1790s?), the village was transferred under the control of the Lidoriki Turkish ruler.

MAKRISI

An hour and a half northwest of Vitrinitsa is Makrisi, with a small stream and a piece of forest.

With 24 families and 111 inhabitants (pre-war it had 150 inhabitants) the village produces wine, legumes, corn and a little bit of wheat.

The following jury members have been proposed:

  • Gikas Anagnostis, landowner, 49, with an income of 1,500 drachmas per year.
  • Drosopoulos Andreas, landowner, 54 years old with income of 1,500 drachmas the year.
  • This is also Béskos  George, a 33-year-old landowner.
MILIA

“Militsa is on the cliff,” says the song, and Milia is situated on cliffs and forested slopes with 36 families, 178 inhabitants (pre-war it had 150 inhabitants) – and cheap vineyards.

Juror candidate is Koumotós  or Kokmotos Dimitris, municipal councilor, 42, with an income of 2,000 drachmas. the year.

Other important Milliaotes include:

  • Vasilopoulos Thanasis, landowner, 51 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Vassilopoulos Dimitris of , landowner, 51 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Botinis Giannis, landowner, 56 years old (Independence Fighter).
  • Botinis Kostas, landowner, 48 years old (Independence Fighter).
  • Dalakas Margaritis Giannis, landowner, 56 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Papadimitrios Kostas, landowner, 46 years old. (Independence Fighter).
  • Papadimitrios Charalambis, landowner, 33 years old.
  • Tambartzis Giorgos, landowner, 52 years old. (Independence Fighter).
SOTENA

Two-and-a-half hours drive northwest of Vitrinitsa, Sotaina has 71 residents – 15 families – making a living with goats and sheep and some corn, barley and wheat.

A well-known Sotieniotis is Sylladavos Thanassis, landowner (Independence Fighter).

DOBROVITSA

Durovitsa, now pillaged, had pre-war, 25 inhabitants.

VIDAVI

East of Vitrinitsa, two hours, is Vidavi (now Agii Pantes) with 423 inhabitants – before ’21 it had 75 people. Against the sea, it opens into two good harbors and produces wine, oil, wheat and barley.

Candidates that have been nominated:
*Galanis Nikos, a landowner, 64 years old, with an income of 1,500 acres per year. (Independence Fighter).
*Mantzos Nikos, a 33-year-old justice of the peace, with an income of 1,500 drachmas a year.

KISELIS

The last village of the Municipality of Tolofonos, Kiselis (now Panormos), which is one hour from Vitrinitsa and produces wheat, corn, barley, rye, legumes, cotton, raisins.

On a hillside, the town has two marvelous harbors and contains 47 families and 216 inhabitants – 150 of which are pre-war.

Jury members that have been proposed:
*Despotopoulos G. , Officer, 63 years old, with an income of 2,000 euros per year.
*Leos Thanasis, Officer, 56 years old, with an income of 2,000 drachmas a year.
*Lecos Antonis, 53-year-old landowner, with an income of 2,000 drachmas per year.
*Lecos Giorgos, landowner, 59 years old, with an income of 1,800 drachmas a year.

Other worthwhile Kiselliotes are:
*Athanasiadis Anagnóstis, landowner, 29 years old.
*Dromazos Thymios, a merchant, 31 years old.
*Dromazos Panayiotis, landowner, 30 years old.
*Krikos Loucas of Pan. landowner (Independence Fighter).
*Lego Nikos, landowner, 20 years old.

PROVINCIAL COUNCILORS

Prior to the tribunals being formed,  provincial councilors were selected in 1847:

From the Municipality of Aegiou came

  • Karadimas Nikos,
  • Karandra Dimos,
  • Karachalios Thanasis and
  • Tsagournos Yannis.

From the Municipality of Krokilio  came

  • Kavikis Giannis,
  • Kontosis Anagnostis,
  • Kotaris Adritsos and
  • Haris Panagiotis.

From the Municipality of Tolofonos came

  • Karandrea Dimitris,
  • Plesotogiannis Giannis,
  • Stamatopoulos Giannis, and
  • Chello Nikos.

From the Municipality of Potidania  came,

  • Kefala Yannis,
  • Panias Thanasis and
  • Holevas Giorgos.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 1821 WAR/MEDALS OF VALOR AWARDED

Doridos offered much during the struggle for independence, both people, livestock and food.

In a decision of the Supreme Court, which was archived, we get a picture of the sacrifices made by the region’s residents.

List of medals awarded  in each province.

Lidoriki                   2,000

Malandrino              1,000

Salona (Amfissa)  3,000

Patratziki (Ypati ) 1,500

Out of the total  awarded nationwide of 24,500 = 30%

Total population in the region was 15,000 which means that 50% of the population was recognized for their contributions.

 

*************************************

Η ΠΛΕΣΙΑ

Τριπλασιασμένη , σχεδόν ,μετά την απελευθέρωση , η Πλέσια , έφτασε τους 423 κατοίκους – 75 οικογένειες – ενώ πριν είχε 175 . 

Μιάμιση ώρα βορεινά της Βιτρινίτσας , βγάζει στάρι , κριθάρι , καλαμπόκι και τυρί υπέροχο .

Γιά ένορκοι έχουν προταθή οι :

Γεωργίου Γιάννης , δημοτικός σύμβουλος , 59 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2,000 δρχ . το χρόνο .

Καρανάσιος Κώστας , κτηνοτρόφος , 58 χρονών , με περιουσία 6.000 δρχ .

Μανέτας Αν. , ειρηνοδικειακός πάρεδρος , 49 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2000 δρχ το χρόνο .

Μανέτας Π., κτηματίας , 43 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2.000 δρχ το χρόνο .

Σημαντικοί είναι επίσης και οι :

Ιωάννου Γιώργος , κτηματίας , 55 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Καμουτσής Σταύρος , κτηματίας , 60 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Κανιός Παναγιώτης , κτηματίας . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Καραμάντζαλος Κώστας , κτηματίας , 51 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Κοκμοτός Μίχος , κτηματίας , 55 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Κοτρότσοςη Κορδελάςη Κορδαλάς Αντρέας , κτηματίας , 50 χρονών .

( Αγωνιστής ) .

Κουτσομίχος Χρήστος , κτηματίας , 55 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Μπούνοςη Πλέσιας Γιάννης , κτηματίας , 55 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Χρυσανθάκης Κώστας , κτηματίας , 32 χρονών .

 

 

ΒΡΑΙΛΑ

 

Στην άκρη της κλειστής κοιλάδας της Βελάς , δυό ώρες απ’ το Λοιδωρίκι προς τα νότια , βρίσκεται η Βραίλα η Μπραίλα , με αρκετά γιδοπρόβατα και κύρια σοδήματα το καλαμπόκι , το στάρι , το κριθάρι και το κρασί . 

 

Οι άνθρωποί της λιγόστεψαν ,κι ‘ενώ πριν το ’21 – που υπαγόταν στον Καζά Μαλαντρίνου – μετριώνταν 16 οικογένειες με 80 νομάτους , τώρα έχει 12 με 45 . 

 

Γνωστοί Μπραιλιώτες είναι οι : 

Κ ο ν τ ο μίχος Γιώργος , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος . (Αγωνιστής ) . 

Μαλακάσης Παναγιώτης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος . ( Αγωνιστής ) . 

Τσιμέκας Θανάσης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος . ( Αγωνιστής ) . 

Τσιμέκας Γιάννης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 61 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

 

 

ΤΟ ΜΑΛΑΝΤΡΙΝΟ

 

Το Μαλαντρίνο – δυόμιση ώρες απ’ το Λοιδωρίκι , προς τα νότια – έχει τα ίδια με τη Βραίλα , που είπαμε , προιόντα : Καλαμπόκι ,στάρι , κριθάρι , κρασί , τυρί , μαλλιά . 

Οι κάτοικοί της μειώθηκαν κι’ από 350 που είχε πριν το’21 – οι πιό πολλοί ήταν Οθωμανοί – τώρα έχει 236 ( 54 οικογένειες ) . 

 

Την εποχή των Τούρκων είχε βαφτιστεί με τ’ όνομά του το δεύτερο διοικητικό διαμέρισμα της Επαρχίας , ο Καζάς Μαλαντρίνου . 

 

 

ΣΤΡΟΥΖΑ

 

 

Δυό ώρες μακρυά ,απ’ το Λοιδωρίκι είναι η Στρούζα , κοντά σ’ ερείπια που φαίνεται πως ανήκουν στο Αιγίτιο , απ’όπου πήρε τ’όνομα κι’ο Δήμος.  Σφαλισμένος  πάνω στην Πλέσιβα, τόπος κρατάει 35 οικογένειες – 219 κάτοικοι – που τρέφουν γιδοπρόβατα και καλλιεργούν κριθάρια , καλαμπόκια κι’ αμπέλια . 

 

Απ’ τη Στρούζα είναι οι: 

Βασιλοδημήτρης Νίκος , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος . ( Αγωνιστής ). 

Γκόλφης Θανάσης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 55 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) . 

Γκόλφης Γιάννης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 60 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) . 

Μπάκας Παναγιώτης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 70 χρονών. ( Αγωνιστής ) . 

Μπολότας Αντρέας , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 48 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) . 

Στρούζας Παναγιώτης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 53 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

 

 

 

Η ΣΚΑΛΟΥΛΑ

Σε μιά ώρα , απ’ το Λοιδωρίκι , απαντιέται η Σκαλούλα , με 26 οικογένειες και 134 ψυχές , ενώ πριν τον πόλεμο είχε μονάχα 5 με 25 .

 

Φτωχότοπος , παράγει στάρι , κριθάρι , καλαμπόκι και κρασί .

 

Σημαντικοί Σκαλιώτες είναι οι :

Γιαννακόπουλος Γιώργος , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 50 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Γιαννακόπουλος Νίκος ,γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 55 χρονών , ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Σταματόπουλος Θεοχάρης , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 51 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Τζάθας Σταύρος , γεωργοκτηνοτρόφος , 71 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής

 

Ο  ΔΗΜΟΣ ΤΟΛΟΦΩΝΟΣ

Για να κλείσει η Δωρίδα , μένει ο Δήμος Τολοφώνος , που πιάνει όλη την παραλία από το Γαλαξείδι ως κοντά τη Ναύπακτο . Παλιά , απλωνόταν ο Καζάς Μαλαντρίνου στα ίδια όρια .

 

Η ΒΙΤΡΙΝΙΤΣΑ

Πρωτεύουσα του Δήμου , η Βιτρινίτσα – κοντά στην αρχαία Τολοφώνα – απέχει τέσσερις ώρες απ’ το Λοιδωρίκι, προς το νότο .

Ριζωμένη σε θέση καλή, μ’ένα άχρηστο ρέμα , έχει μπροστά την καρπερή πεδιάδα που γεννάει στάρι,  όσπρια, μπαμπάκι, λάδι, κρασί, σταφίδα.

Γερό χωριό, με Δημοτικό Σχολείο Β’ τάξεως και τελωνειακό σταθμό στην παραλία της – τα Χάνια – βαστάει 531 κατοίκους ( 125 οικογένειες ), ενώ προπολεμικί είχε 300 .

Αστυνόμος είναι ο Λάμπρος Γιαννακού και παπάδες οι Αγωνιστές Παπαδη- μήταρης Κολαντζής, 65 χρονών, και Παπασπύρος Σχοινάς, 60 χρονών.

 

Για ένορκοι έχουν προταθή οι :

Γεωργίουη Κοντογιωργόπουλοςη Βιτρινίτσας Δρόσος, κτηματίας, 61 χρονών, με εισόδημα 2.500 δρχ .το χρόνο . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Γκίκας Γιώργος, κτηματίας, 41 χρονών, με περιουσία 6.000 δρχ.

Δραγώτης Θανάσης, κτηματίας, 59 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο.

Δραγώτης Γιάννης , κτηματίας , 50 χρονών, με περιουσία 6.000 δρχ.

Καράμπελας Γιώργος, κτηματίας, 48 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.000 δρχ. το χρόνο.

Κατσούλης Γιάννης, κτηματίας, 47 χρονών, με εισόδημα 2.500 δρχ το χρόνο

( Αγωνιστής ).

Κοντός Λουκάς, έμπορας, 59 χρονών, με εισόδημα 2.500 δρχ. το χρόνο.

Πολίτης Αντρέας του Δρόσου, κτηματίας, 48 χρονών, με περιουσία 6.000 δρχ.

Χλωρός Αντρέας, κτηματίας , 51 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.000 δρχ. το χρόνο .

 

Σημαντικοί Βιτρινιτσιώτες είναι ακόμα και οι :

Βοργιάς Κώστας, κτηματίας, 33 χρονών.

Γεωργακόπουλος Γιάννης, κτηματίας, 31 χρονών.

Κατσικαπής Θόδωρος του Α. κτηματίας, 20 χρονών.

Κατσικαπής  Γιάννης, κτηματίας, 51 χρονών.

Κολαντζή ς Δρόσος, κτηματίας, 51 χρονών. (Αγωνιστής ).

Κοντολάτης Αναγνώστης , κτηματίας, 55 χρονών. (Αγωνιστής ).

Κοντόπουλος Χαραλάμπης του Λ. κτηματίας, 20 χρονών.

Παπαδημητρίουη Καρναβός Γ. έμπορας, 36 χρονών .

Πολίτης Γιώργος του Π., κτηματίας ,40 χρονών .

Σταματόπουλος Γιώργος, κτηματίας.

Σταματόπουλος  Δ. κτηματίας, 45 χρονών.

Σταύρου Στάθης, έμπορας, 47 χρονών.

Σταύρου  Θόδωρος, έμπορας, 33 χρονών.

Χλωρός Γιώργος, κτηματίας, 47 χρονών.

Χλωρός Θωμάς, κτηματίας, 21 χρονών.

 

Η ΞΥΛΟΓΑΙΔΑΡΑ

Μιάμιση ώρα βορειοδυτικά της Βιτρινίτσας , σαν νάναι κρεμασμένη ψηλά , με θέα προς τη θάλασσα , όπου ανοίγονται τέσσερα λιμάνια , είναι η Ξυλογαιδάρα ,με 55 φαμελιές και 254 κατοίκους .( Πριν τον πόλεμο μέτραγε 150 νομάτους ) . Στις γύρω ράχες τρέφονται γιδοπρόβατα και στις άπλες της παράγονται καλαμπόκι , στάρι , κρασί και λάδι υπέροχο .

 

Υποψήφιοι ένορκοι γράφτηκαν οι :

Γριλάνοςη Γκιρλάνος Αναγνώστης, ειρηνοδικειακός πάρεδρος, 55 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο ( Αγωνιστής ).

Δάραςη Γιαννακόπουλος Δημήτρης του Ιωάννου, κτηματίας, 49 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο. ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Ζωιτόςη Καραμπίνης Δημήτρης, κτηματίας, 60 χρονών, με εισόδημα 2.500 δρχ. το χρόνο. ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Καθαράκης Γιάννης, κτηματίας, 69 χρονών, με εισόδημα 2.500 δρχ. το χρόνο.

(Αγωνιστής ) .

Κουτρούκης Γιαννάκης, δημοτικός σύμβουλος – κτηματίας, 63 χρονών, με εισόδημα 2.500 δρχ. το χρόνο. (Αγωνιστής από τους ξακουστούς ) .

Κωνσταντίνουη Κωνσταντέλλος Ηλίας, κτηματίας, 40 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο.

 

Γνωστοί είναι, επίσης, και οι:

Βαβάτσικος Θανάσης, κτηματίας. ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Κουτούτζαςη Κουτάτζης Αναγνώστης, κτηματίας, 51 χρονών. ( Αγωνιστής)

Κουτρούκης Δημήτρης του Ιωάννου, έμπορας, 30 χρονών.

Κουτρούκης  Παναγιώτης του Ιωάννου, κτηματίας, 22 χρονών .

 

Ο ΒΕΛΕΝΙΚΟΣ

Κοντά στην Ξυλογαιδάρα , δυό ώρες βορειοδυτικά της Βιτρινίτσας , βρίσκεται ο Βελενίκος .

 

Ριζωμένος κι’αυτός μέσα, αγγίζει τον Κορινθιακό με δυό λιμάνια. Το χώμα του το καρπερό δίνει στάρι, καλαμπόκι, κρασί και λάδι, αρκετά για να ζήσουν οι 132 ψυχές του – 28 οικογένειες. Πριν το ’21 υπαγόταν στον Καζά Λοιδωρικίου – είχε 75 κατοίκους.

 

Για ένορκοι έχουν προταθή οι :

Σταματογιάννης Γιάννης του Α., δημοτικός σύμβουλος, 50 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο. ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Τσάμης Δημήτρης, κτηματίας, 69 χρονών, με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο.

 

Άξιοι είναι και οι:

Γεωργακόπουλος Αντρέας, κτηματίας, 50 χρονών. ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Κουτσουμπάκηςη Κουτσουμπάνης Γιώργος, κτηματίας, 50 χρονών.

( Αγωνιστής ) .

Κωνσταντίνουη Μαχαίρας Δημήτρης του Κωνσταντίνου, κτηματίας.

( Αγωνιστής ) .

Σιδερόπουλος Θανάσης, κτηματίας, 30 χρονών.

Σταματογιάννη  Γιώργος, κτηματίας, 58 χρονών. ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Σταματογιάννη  Θύμιος του Α, κτηματίας, 39 χρονών.

 

TA MAΡΑΖΙΑ

Τα Μαραζιά απέχουν δυόμιση ώρες από τη Βιτρινίτσα , βορειοδυτικά , και παράγουν τα ίδια με τα γύρω : στάρι , καλαμπόκι , κρασί , λάδι .

 

Σήμερα , οι κάτοικοί τους φτάνουν τους 232 – 45 οικογένειες – ενώ προπολεμικά είχαν 135 , από τους οποίους οι 35 μέναν στ’απάνω Μαραζιά .

 

Υποψήφιοι ένορκοι είναι οι :

Μπίτης Α. Αξιωματικός , 64 χρονών , με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο .

Παπαθεοχάρης Αναγνώστης, κτηματίας , 59 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2.000 δρχ . το χρόνο .

 

Ξεχωρίζουν , πάλι , και οι :

Κατής Αντώνης , κτηματίας .( Αγωνιστής ) .

Καψόκολος Νίκος , κτηματίας , 48 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

 

ΤΑ ΤΡΟΙΖΩΝΙΑ

Αγκαλιασμένα απ’ τη θάλασσα τα Τροιζώνια , νησί με σπίτια και νεκροταφείο , που βρίσκονται θαμμένοι πολλοί Αγωνιστές του ’21 , που έπεσαν στις άγριες μάχες τις περιοχής .

 

Εδώ , στο τέλος του περασμένου αιώνα , ήθελε να μεταφέρει την έδρα του ο Δεσπότης του Λοιδωρικίου .

 

Η ΜΑΚΡΥΣΗ

Μιάμιση ώρα βορειοδυτικά της Βιτρινίτσας , είναι η Μάκρυση , μ’ένα ρέμα μικρό και κομμάτι δάσους .

 

Με 24 φαμελιές και 111 νομάτους – προπολεμικά είχε 150 – παράγει κρασί , όσπρια , καλαμπόκι και λίγο στάρι .

 

Για ένορκοι έχουν προταθή οι :

Γκίκας Αναγνώστης , κτηματίας , 49 χρονών , με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ. το χρόνο.

Δροσόπουλος Αντρέας , κτηματίας , 54 χρονών με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ . το χρόνο .

Από δω επίσης είναι και ο Μπέσκος Γιώργος , κτηματίας , 33 χρονών .

 

Η ΜΗΛΙΑ

« Μηλίτσα πούσαι στον γκρεμνό » , λέει το τργούδι , κι’η Μηλιά μέσα σε γκρεμούς και σάρες είναι , μ’ένα δασάκι , 36 οικογένειες , 178 κατοίκους – προπολεμικά είχε 150 – και τα φτηνά αμπελοχώραφα .

 

Υποψήφιος ένορκος είναι ο Κουμοτός η Κοκμοτός Δημήτρης ,δημοτικός σύμβουλος , 42 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2.000 δρχ . το χρόνο .

 

Στους σημαντικούς Μηλιώτες περιλαμβάνονται και οι :

Βασιλόπουλος Θανάσης , κτηματίας , 51 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Βασιλόπουλος  Δημήτρης του Κ., κτηματίας , 51 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Μποτίνης Γιάννης , κτηματίας ,56 χρονών .( Αγωνιστής ) .

Μποτίνης  Κώστας , κτηματίας , 48 χρονών .( Αγωνιστής ) .

Νταλάκαςη Μαργαρίτης Γιάννης , κτηματίας , 56 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Παπαδημητρίο υ Κώστας , κτηματίας , 46 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Παπαδημητρίο  Χαραλάμπης , κτηματίας , 33 χρονών .

Ταμπρατζής Γιώργος , κτηματίας , 52 χρονών . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

 

H ΣΩΤΑΙΝΑ

Σε δυόμιση ώρες δρόμο , βορειδυτικά ,της Βιτρινίτσας , συναντιέται η Σώταινα , με 71 κατοίκους – 15 οικογένειες – που ζουν απ’ό,τι δίνουν τα γιδοπρόβατα που τρέφουν και λίγα καλαμπόκια , στάρια και κριθάρια .

 

Γνωστός Σωταινιώτης είναι ο Συλλάνταβος Θανάσης , κτηματίας .( Αγωνιστής ) .

 

Η ΝΤΟΒΡΟΒΙΤΣΑ

Η Ντοβροβίτσα , ρημαγμένη τώρα , είχε προπολεμικά , 25 νομάτους .

 

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Η ΒΙΔΑΒΗ

Ανατολικά της Βιτρινίτσας , δυό ώρες , είναι η Βίδαβη με 423 κατοίκους – πριν το ’21 είχε 75 . Ακουμπισμένη ως τη θάλασσα , ανοίγει δυό καλά λιμάνια και παράγει κρασί , λάδι , στάρι και κριθάρι .

Υποψήφιοι ένορκοι έχουν προταθή οι :

Γαλάνης Νίκος , κτηματίας , 64 χρονών , με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ.το χρόνο .

(Αγωνιστής ) .

Μαντζόρος Νίκος , ειρηνοδικειακός πάρεδρος , 33 χρονών , με εισόδημα 1.500 δρχ το χρόνο .

 

Η ΚΙΣΕΛΗ

Τελευταίο χωριό του Δήμου Τολοφώνος η Κίσελη , που απέχει μιά ώρα απ’τη Βιτρινίτσα και βγάζει στάρι , καλαμπόκι , κριθάρι , σίκαλη , όσπρια , μπαμπάκι , σταφίδα .

 

Σε πλαγιά χτισμένη , έχει δυό θαυμάσια λιμάνια , 47 φαμελιές και 216 κατοίκους – προπολεμικά είχς 150 .

 

Γιά ένορκοι έχουν προταθή οι:

Δεσποτόπουλος Γ. Αξιωματικός , 63 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2.000 χρχ το χρόνο .

Λέκος Θανάσης , αξιωματικός , 56 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2.000 δρχ , το χρόνο .

Λέκος  Αντώνης , κτηματίας , 53 χρονών , με εισόδημα 2.000 δρχ. το χρόνο .

Λέκος  Γιώργος , κτηματίας , 59 χρονών , με εισόδημα 1.800 δρχ. το χρόνο .

 

Άξιοι ακόμα Κισελιώτες είναι οι :

Αθανασιάδης Αναγνώστης , κτηματίας , 29 χρονών .

Δρομάζος Θύμιος , έμπορας , 31 χρονών .

Δρομάζος Παναγιώτης , κτηματίας , 30 χρονών .

Κρίκος Λουκάς του Π. Κτηματίας . ( Αγωνιστής ) .

Λέκος Νίκος , κτηματίας , 20 χρονών .

 

 

 

 

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Vlachs – A Follow-Up To Aromanian/Arvanite Post (7-28-2018)

Regarding the Vlachs…..
“They are the nomadic breeders of the Peloponnese …. In the various books and documents…… they are referred to as “the defeated”or “the shepherds”.  They themselves … identify themselves as ‘Vlach Nomads‘.
As a place of origin, they mention Pindos (Syrrako, Agrafa), where they left at the beginning of the 19th century, chased by the Ali Pasha … In the revolution of 1821 they contributed significantly to the struggle by selling livestock and food to the resistance, so Ibrahim made his Corinthian forces their primary goal to destroy the Vlachs livestock on Mount Ziria
At the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century ‘the Vlach Nomads’ were at the height of their glory. Flocks with thousands of horses, hundreds of horses, countless children and grandchildren and thousands of pounds that will allow them to make big purchases later. In the 1920s, the state, trying to curb robbery and desertion, forced them to register with the communities in order to be able to rent a lot. In addition, they began buying houses and meadows in the mountainous communities of Achaia and Corinth, whose inhabitants had already begun to emigrate to the coast of the Corinthian Gulf from the late 19th century …
In the 1930s they began to be tentatively engaged with the cultivation of land.    Laws prohibiting the over-grazing of forests also played a decisive role. The war of 1940 and later the civil war caused great losses of lives, animals, and money and marked the end of nomadic life. They began to abandon livestock farming, abolished inter-marriage,  abandoned their native clothing, and settled, as farmers, on the coastal sites. Today, only 25% are engaged in livestock farming, 50% in agriculture and 25% in other professions, mainly butchers, barbecues and dairy shops.   Most of the Vlachs’ tents are located in Corinthia (50%), Achaia (20%), Argolida (10%), Ilia (15%) and (5%) Megara and Salamina.”
Source:  Leonidas V. Petrou: Moraites, Nomads, Breeders (Karagounides, Karakatsanides, Roumeliotes), Aegio 2007
You can read more about the Vlachs:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlachs

The “Classics” From Fokidos (7/23/2018)

The oldest known photo of Plessa villagers comes to us courtsey  of Plessa Photo Safe/Spyros Chryssanthakis.  It was taken in the 1880s and shows Konstantinos Georgios Chryssanthakis (Χρυσανθάκη) (1823–1899) and his wife Aikaterini Ioannis Georgious (Γεωργίου) (1835–1920).  Konstatinos’ mother was Anthoula Kamoutsi (Καμουτσή) (1805–1850)

Konstantinos Georgios Chryssanthakis (Χρυσανθάκη) (1823–1899) and his wife Aikaterini Ioannis Georgious (Γεωργίου) (1835–1920)

Next up: two men who emigrated from the Fokidos region to Minnesota (USA) and who both lived past 100.

Age 104 – Nick Haidos  (born in Milea, Fokidos). You can read newspaper articles here.

Age 103 – James Efstathios Kotonias (Dimitrios Efstathios Koutonias). He arrived at Ellis Island on  24 Mar 1907 at age  24.

In his book, The History of Plessa, A. Manetas writes:

“Σε κασσέτα, που υπάρχει σε μουσείο του Hibbing Minesota των ΗΠΑ, είναι αποτυπωμένη η φωνή του παλαιού μετανάστη συγχωριανού μας Δημητράκη Ευσταθίου Κουτονιά (γ. 1882) ο οποίος απεβίωσε σε ηλικία 104 ετών, που διηγείται τη ζωή των μεταναστών τα παλαιότερα χρόνια καθώς και παλαιά περιστατικά της περιοχής εκείνης.”

( “In a tape, which exists in a museum of the US Hibbing Minesota, is the voice of the old immigrant villager  Dimitrakis Efstathiou Koutonias (c. 1882) who died at the age of 104 years, where he talks about the life of immigrants in the older years and old incidents of that area. “)

An excerpt of that recording has been set to this video slideshow by his grandson James Kotonias.

 

James E Kotonias (born 1882)

 

 

 

Greeks In Minneapolis – Part 1 (11-13-2017)

After working on the railroads in the 1910s and 1920s, many Greeks settled in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Below are three newspaper articles written by or about some of the Greeks who settled in Minneapolis. You can download full size copies here

St Cloud Times, April 1950

 

Nick Haidos from Miliea, Phocis, Nov 1986, page 1

 

page 2

 

Nick Haidos Aug 1993 page 1

 

St__Cloud_Times_Mon__Apr_10__1950_

 

 

Plessa (Amygdalia) Emigrants – Spreadsheet (UPDATED 11-11-2017)

A few years back, Plessa (Amygdalia) had a website. Someone went through the United States Ellis Island records and pulled the names of 200+ villagers who came to America for work.  The website is gone, but I still have the spreadsheet and have uploaded a copy here.    Amygdalia-Plessa Variations Immigration

In the intervening years, I’ve created my own spreadsheet and added much more content- the names of the ships, who they were traveling to, who they left behind. This is not completed, but  I have also uploaded the most current copy.  I will update it as it changes.

Copy dated 11-11-2017  AMYGDALIA IMMIGRANTS With Details PUBLIC

Last, don’t forget to check out the many different family names and variations.